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올리버 노스

올리버 노스


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소개Oliver L. 그는 베스트셀러 작가이자 소규모 기업의 창립자, 미국 특허 3건을 보유한 발명가, 신디케이트 칼럼니스트, Fox News Channel의 "WarStories" 진행자로 마린으로 추앙받고 있습니다. 그는 자신의 가장 중요한 업적이 "한 아이의 남편이자 네 아이의 아빠"라고 주장합니다. North는 또한 활동 중 사망한 군인의 자녀에게 장학금을 제공하는 비영리 재단인 Freedom Alliance¹의 창립자이자 명예 회장입니다. 노스는 계속해서 미국의 군인들을 보호하기 위해 글을 쓰고 목소리를 내고 있습니다. 그는 버지니아에 소재한 법 집행 요원용 방탄복 제조업체인 Guardian Technologies International, Inc.의 회장이자 공동 설립자이기도 합니다.초기 경력 및 가족노스는 1943년 10월 7일 텍사스주 샌안토니오에서 태어나 뉴욕주 북부 필몬트에서 천주교인으로 자랐다. 그는 브록포트에 있는 뉴욕주립대학교를 다녔고 미 해군사관학교에 입학하여 1968년에 졸업했습니다. 노스는 베트남 전쟁을 포함하여 22년 동안 해병으로 복무했습니다. 그는 은성, 동성, 2개의 퍼플하트를 수상했습니다. 로널드 레이건 행정부에서 국가안보회의 직원으로 배정된 노스 대령은 1983년부터 1986년까지 미국 정부의 대테러 조정관이었습니다. 그는 804의료 구조 계획에 참여했습니다. 1983년 그레나다 섬에서 학생들을 만나 유람선 납치범을 과감하게 포획하는 데 큰 역할을 했습니다. 아킬레 라우로 1985년. 리비아에 있는 무아마르 카다피의 테러리스트 기지에 대한 급습, 2002년 8월 바그다드에서 숨진 채 발견된 악명 높은 테러리스트 아부 니달(카다피의 명령에 따라)의 암살 목표가 된 북부. 수상 경력에 빛나는 전투 뉴스 보도, 그가 " 2003년 이라크 자유 작전 기간 동안 폭스 뉴스를 위해 미 해병대 및 육군 부대와 함께 삽입했습니다.”는 큰 박수를 받았습니다. 올리버 노스는 1967년부터 전 베시 스튜어트와 결혼했으며 4명의 자녀를 두고 있습니다. North의 군대 생활과 신앙을 향한 여정은 그가 솔직하게 이야기하는 주제입니다. 경력 요구와 가족 의무, 신앙, 시민적 책임 사이의 균형을 맞추는 방법.이란-콘트라 사건노스는 이란-콘트라 사건에 연루되어 유명해지거나 정치적인 관점에 따라 악명이 높아졌다. 그는 중개자를 통해 이란에 무기를 불법적으로 판매하는 중앙 조정자였으며 이윤은 니카라과의 콘트라 반군을 지원하는 데 사용되었습니다. 국가 안보 기록 보관소에 따르면 1986년 8월 23일 John Poindexter²에게 보낸 이메일에서 North는 다음과 같이 설명했습니다. 파나마의 독재자 마누엘 노리에가 대표와의 만남."수년 동안 파나마에서 마누엘 노리에가와 나는 꽤 좋은 관계를 발전시켰다는 것을 기억할 것"이라고 노스는 썼다. 관리들은 "자신의 이미지를 정리하는 데 도움을 줄 수 있고" 파나마 방위군에 대한 무기 판매 금지를 해제할 수 있으며, 노리에가는 "우리를 위해 산디니스타 지도부를 '돌볼' 것"이라고 노스는 Poindexter에 노리에가가 산디니스타에 대한 방해 공작을 도울 수 있다고 말했습니다. 그는 니카라과의 경제 투자를 파괴하는 데 도움을 준 파나마 지도자의 대가로 노리에가에게 100만 달러(이란에 대한 미국 무기 판매로 조성된 "민주주의 프로젝트" 자본금)를 지불할 것을 제안했습니다. , 그리고 1987년 7월 이란-콘트라를 조사하기 위해 구성된 의회 합동 위원회의 텔레비전 청문회에 앞서 노스는 증언을 위해 소환되었습니다. 그는 자신이 '자유 투사'로 본 콘트라를 돕는 목적을 믿는다고 말하며 자신의 행동을 변호했고, 불법 이란-콘트라 계획을 '순수한 생각'으로 보았다고 말했다. 1988년 국가안전보장회의(NSC) 활동으로 재판을 받았다. Gesell은 1989년 7월 5일 징역 3년, 집행유예 2년, 벌금 150,000달러, 사회 봉사 1,200시간을 선고받았습니다. 그의 공개 증언이 공정한 재판을 받을 권리를 침해할 수 있다는 이유로 추가 절차를 진행합니다. 미국. 대법원은 이 사건의 검토를 거부했고 Gesell 판사는 면책 문제에 대한 청문회 후 독립 변호인의 제안으로 1991년 9월 16일 혐의를 기각했습니다. 본질적으로, North의 유죄 판결은 그가 의회 증언에 대해 제한된 면제를 받았기 때문에 번복되었고 그 증언이 증인들에게 영향을 미친 것으로 간주되었습니다.말년과 정치 경력1994년에 노스는 버지니아에서 미국 공화당 후보로 출마하지 못했습니다. 한 가지 이유는 선거 직전에 전 영부인 낸시 레이건이 언론에 노스가 이란-콘트라에 대한 논의에서 남편에게 거짓말을 했다고 알렸기 때문일 수 있습니다. North의 후보는 1996년 다큐멘터리 "A Perfect Candidate"의 주제였습니다. North는 다음을 포함한 여러 베스트셀러 책을 저술했습니다. 불 아래, 또 하나의 미션, 전쟁 이야기 - 이라크 자유 작전, 임무 손상, 그리고 여리고 제재. 그는 또한 신디케이트된 칼럼니스트이자 TV 쇼 "War Stories with Oliver North"의 진행자이며 Fox 뉴스 채널의 "Hannity and Colmes"에 대한 해설자이기도 합니다. 또한 그는 강의 회로에 바쁘다.정치적, 역사적 유산노스는 미국 정치 무대에서 논란이 많은 배우였으며 지지자들은 그의 행동에 대한 열렬한 변호를 받아들이고 비평가들은 그의 법 위반에 반대했습니다. 북한의 역사에도 불구하고 그는 일부 보수주의자들로부터 지지를 받고 있다. 다른 사람들은 공산주의 팽창을 물리치려는 북한의 목표가 정당했고 그것을 달성하기 위해 노력한 방식이 부적절하다는 견해를 견지한다. 일부는 보수적인 정치적 대의에 대한 그의 옹호를 높이 평가합니다. 노스의 비평가들은 민주주의와 법의 국가에서 한 사람이 자신의 목표가 얼마나 의롭다고 믿는다 하더라도 법 위에 행동할 수 없다고 주장합니다. 일부에서는 그의 활동이 니카라과에서 민주적으로 선출된 주권 정부의 전복 시도와 테러리즘에 크게 기여했으며 미국에 적대적인 이란을 도왔다고 지적합니다. 답은 다음 질문에 달려 있는 것 같습니다. 대통령알고, 언제 알았어? 대통령과 그의 측근 외에 누구도 대답할 수 없었다. 그는 1987년 7월 15일 이란-콘트라 청문회에서 무기 판매 자금을 전용하는 것에 대해 "대통령에게 묻지 않기로 매우 신중한 결정을 내렸다. 대통령." Poindexter의 능숙한 부인은 대통령을 탄핵의 위협에서 해방시켰고 의회를 그를 탄핵할 의무로부터 해방시켰다. 노스는 "행정부에 복무한 사람들의 행동을 범죄화함으로써 행정부 자체가 실제 관련 문제에서 물러날 수 있었다"고 썼다. "이것은 의회와 언론에 대한 선물이었습니다."이 사건에서 배울 분명한 교훈이 있습니다. 레이건 행정부는 결국 냉전에서 승리했다. 기만과 위선이 궁극적으로 법에 대한 실용주의의 승리로 미국 국민에게 가해진 것입니까?


¹자유 동맹 웹페이지
² John Poindexter는 Ronald Reagan의 국가 안보 보좌관이었습니다. 그는 이란-콘트라 스캔들에서 음모, 의회 거짓말, 정부 사기, 증거인멸 혐의로 유죄 판결을 받았습니다.


이란-콘트라

노스는 레바논에 억류된 미국 인질 석방을 독려하기 위해 이란에 무기를 불법적으로 판매한 이란-콘트라 사건 당시 국가안보회의(NSC) 위원으로 재임하는 동안 두각을 나타냈다. 노스는 연방법에 따라 특별히 금지된 니카라과의 콘트라 반군을 지원하기 위해 무기 판매 수익을 전용하는 계획의 두 번째 부분을 구성하고 조정했습니다.

이 사건에 대해 노스는 후회가 없다고 말했다.

"나는 아야톨라 호메이니의 돈을 사용하여 니카라과 독립투사들을 지원하는 것은 좋은 생각이라고 보았다. 지금도 그렇다. 나는 그것이 틀렸다고 생각하지 않는다. 나는 그것이 깔끔한 생각이라고 생각하고 나는 책임을 받아들이기 위해 여기 왔다. 우리가 성취한 것을 자랑스럽게 생각하기 때문입니다."


니카라과의 산디니스타

의회를 장악한 직후 민주당원들은 볼란드 수정안을 통과시켰는데, 이 수정안은 외국 분쟁에서 CIA(Central Intelligence Agency)와 국방부(DoD)의 활동을 제한했습니다.

수정안은 특히 반공주의자 콘트라가 공산주의 산디니스타 정부와 싸우고 있던 니카라과를 겨냥했다.

Reagan은 Contras를 “건국의 아버지들과 도덕적으로 동등하다고 설명했습니다. 그러나 그 시점까지 그들의 자금의 대부분은 니카라과의 코카인 거래를 통해 이루어졌으며, 따라서 의회는 볼랜드 수정안을 통과시키기로 결정했습니다.

그럼에도 불구하고 대통령은 국가안보보좌관인 로버트 맥팔레인(Robert McFarlane)에게 정치적인 비용이든 아니든 상관없이 마약 거래 콘트라를 도울 방법을 찾도록 지시했습니다.


더 네이션 올리버 노스의 처벌

올리버 L. 노스의 이란-콘트라 재판을 주재한 예측 불가능한 79세 연방 지방 판사 게르하르트 A. 게셀(GERHARD A. GESELL)은 자신의 범죄에 대해 노스에게 벌금이 포함된 형을 선고함으로써 마지막 놀라움을 구했다. , 사회 봉사 및 보호 관찰, 그러나 징역은 없습니다.

North's의 추종자들과 그를 비방하는 사람들은 Gesell 판사가 법 준수, 혐의의 심각성, 독립 검사인 Lawrence E. Walsh의 권고를 고려할 때 훨씬 더 가혹한 대우를 기대했습니다. 노스는 감옥에서 시간을 보낸다. 또한 Gesell 판사는 1970년대 중반에 Watergate와 관련된 여러 재판을 주재했을 때 고위 공무원을 감옥에 보내는 데 주저하지 않았습니다.

전 해병대 중령이자 국가안전보장회의(NSC) 보좌관이었던 Mr. North는 문서 인멸, 13,800달러의 주택 보안 시스템 선물 수락, 의회 방해 방조 혐의로 유죄 판결을 받았습니다. Gesell 판사는 최대 10년의 징역과 $750,000의 벌금을 부과할 수 있었습니다. 대신 그는 $150,000의 벌금, 2년의 집행유예, 3년의 집행유예, 1,200시간의 사회봉사를 명령했습니다.

형량이 관대해지자 검사들은 아무런 논평 없이 법원을 스토킹했다. 그리고 오하이오의 Howard M. Metzenbaum 하원의원과 같은 진보적 민주당원의 흩어진 비판은 이번 판결이 ''실망스러운 놀라움이라고 말했습니다. 그러나 인디애나의 Lee H. Hamilton 하원의원을 비롯한 다른 민주당원 일부 , Mr. North's의 더 가혹한 비평가 중 한 사람은 처벌에 대해 비판할 만한 것을 찾지 못했습니다. 이란-콘트라를 조사한 하원 패널 의장인 Mr. Hamilton은 형이 ''좋고 현명하다고 말했습니다.''

동시에 Gesell 판사의 관대함은 대통령 사면을 위한 Mr. North의 보수 지지자들의 캠페인을 수축시키는 것처럼 보였습니다. 따라서 노스가 감옥에 갇히지 않은 것을 기쁘게 표명한 부시는 정치적으로 경솔한 결정을 면할 수 있다.

나머지 이란-콘트라 시험에 대한 영향은 불확실했습니다. Gesell 판사는 레이건 행정부의 고위 인사들이 노스 씨보다 이란-콘트라 범죄에 더 많은 책임을 지고 있다고 말했습니다. 그것은 미래의 피고인들이 유죄 판결을 받을 경우 노스 씨가 받은 것보다 더 가혹한 대우를 기대할 수 있다는 것을 의미합니까?

반드시는 아닙니다. 일부 정부 관리들은 이번 재판이 올해 말에 시작될 전 국가안보보좌관인 존 M. 포인덱스터를 포함해 나머지 4명의 피고인들의 입장을 강화하는 것으로 보인다고 말했다. 이러한 피고인들은 유죄 판결을 받더라도 감옥에서 탈출할 수 있다고 믿으면서 검찰에 강력하게 도전하도록 부추길 수 있습니다.


NRA는 Oliver North’s의 역사를 정말로 알고 있습니까?

게이지 스키드모어/플리커

나는 David Corn에게 그 이유를 묻지 않았습니다. 그가 워싱턴 편집장이었을 때 나라, 그는 인생의 상당 부분을 CIA 요원 Ted Shackley의 경력을 연구하는 데 보내기로 결정했지만, Bay of Pigs를 Watergate 강도 및 이란-콘트라 사건과 연결시키는 이야기를 그가 거부할 수 없다는 것이 안전한 내기라고 생각합니다. National Rifle Association의 모든 회원은 Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and CIA&rsquos Crusades(Amazon에서 하드커버로 단 $3.99에 구입 가능)의 사본을 구입하는 것이 좋습니다. 그것은 아마도 새로운 회장인 Ollie North가 Contras에 자금을 지원했던 사람들을 알게 되는 가장 간단한 방법일 것입니다.

스캔들의 이란 부분과 관련하여 I&rsquod는 8장: 독립 변호사 Lawrence E. Walsh&rsquos의 이란/반대 사안에 대한 최종 보고서를 추천하는 기업과 재정을 추천합니다. 그것은 20세기 후반에 우리 국가 정치의 정맥을 통과하는 가장 악명 높은 악당들과 관련된 흥미진진한 이야기입니다. CIA 요원인 Rafael &ldquoChi Chi&rdquo Quintero, Thomas Clines, Edwin Wilson에 대한 기사를 읽는 것이 지루하지 않을 것입니다. 저를 믿으십시오. 그리고 Adnan Khashoggi와 같은 무기 상인의 생활 방식에 대해 배우는 것은 항상 흥미진진합니다.

이것은 올리버 노스의 진정한 성격이 그가 국가적 관심의 중심에 있을 때에도 완전히 이해되지 않았고, 시간의 흐름이 이와 관련하여 도움이 되었기 때문에 모두 중요합니다. 문제의 일부는 독립 변호인단이 자신의 유죄를 입증하면 기밀 정보가 공개되고 의회에서 제한된 면책 권한을 부여받았고 그의 변호사들이 매우 유능하고 공격적이며 의지가 있었기 때문에 북한에 대한 대부분의 심각한 혐의를 취하해야 한다는 것이었습니다. 자신을 방어하기 위해 그레이메일을 사용합니다.

북한이 조직한 불법적인 작전에 대해 너무 과도하게 행동하지 않는다면, 북한에 대해 동정심을 갖는 것은 항상 상대적으로 쉬웠습니다. 의회가 그들의 대의에 대한 직접적인 지원을 금지했을 때 그는 Contras를 계속 유지하라는 요청을 받았습니다. 대통령은 그것이 중요하다고 말했고 그의 국방장관, CIA 국장, 국가안보보좌관이 모두 승인했습니다. 나중에 북한은 레바논에서 이란 대리인이 억류하고 있던 인질을 석방하는 데 도움을 달라는 요청을 받았습니다. 이것은 Ronald Reagan에게 최우선 순위였습니다. 사실 North는 불법적인 일을 하기보다는 사임할 수 있었지만, 그가 왜 승인되고 애국적인 일을 하고 있다고 느끼는지 쉽게 알 수 있습니다.

North가 주어진 지시를 따르는 것이 전부였다면 그는 확실히 타락한 사람으로 간주될 수 있었습니다. 그의 상관은 그가 있기 전에 일을 처리했어야 했고, 대통령은 궁극적으로 가장 책임 있는 정당이었다. 그의 거짓말 중 일부는 상사가 거짓말을 하고 대외 관계를 손상시키고 출처와 방법을 손상시킬 수 있는 문제에 대해 거짓말을 하라고 요구했기 때문에 이해할 수 있었습니다.

이 이야기의 문제는 North가 단순히 지시를 따르지 않았다는 것입니다. 그와 그의 중위인 Richard Secord와 Albert Hakim은 Contras와 미국 정부를 희생시키면서 자신을 부유하게 만들기 위해 정교한 계획을 세웠습니다. 그들은 이란인, 이스라엘인, 콘트라인, 정부와 맺은 거래를 훑어봄으로써 이를 수행했습니다. 이것은 Walsh 보고서에서 가져온 것입니다.

Secord와 Hakim은 이란과 contra 작전에 관여한 결과 상당한 이익을 얻었습니다. 1985년과 1986년에 Secord는 Enterprise로부터 200만 달러의 직접적인 개인 혜택을 받았고 100만 달러 이상의 현금 지급을 받았습니다. 1985년과 1986년에 Hakim은 직접 혜택으로 206만 달러와 현금으로 55만 달러 이상을 받았습니다.

혜택은 크게 세 가지 범주로 나뉩니다. 콘트라 무기 판매에 대해 비례 배분된 이익 분배에 대해 각각 Secord-Hakim 비즈니스 벤처에 들어간 Enterprise 계정에서 $1,557,377 돈을 받았으며, 이는 각각 $520,000에 해당하고 Enterprise 계정에서 개인 용도로 인출된 자금, $5,729에 달하는 Secord 항공기 수리, 중동에서의 사업 벤처에 대해 Secord와 Hakim이 각각 20,000달러, 메기 사업에 대한 투자에 대해 각각 3,000달러를 지불하는 것을 포함합니다.

North는 Secord 및 Hakim&rsquos의 모든 활동을 감독했으며 자신만의 취향을 얻었습니다.

North는 Calero가 운영 자금으로 제공한 여행자 수표 4,300달러와 North가 식료품점, 주유소 및 기타 소매점에서 지출한 금액을 자신의 주머니에서 지불한 운영 비용을 상환하기 위한 것이라고 증언했습니다. 그는 자신이 그 돈으로 부정직한 일을 했다는 비난을 받을 것이라고는 결코 믿지 않았기 때문에 그가 보관하고 있는 운영 기금 지출에 대한 유일한 기록을 파기하는 것에 대해 걱정하지 않는다고 말했습니다.

North는 자신의 집 벽장 바닥에 볼트로 고정된 금속 상자에 현금 15,000달러를 가지고 있었다고 증언했으며, 이는 용돈 잔돈과 수십 년 간의 보험 합의금으로 인해 절약된 것입니다. North는 이것이 그가 1985년 10월에 구입한 자동차의 자금원이라고 말했습니다. North는 North가 Secord를 방문한 후 두 번째 현금 지불과 두 번째 현금 지불로 자동차 비용을 지불한 이유를 설명할 수 없었습니다. 그는 1985년 10월 지불을 기억할 수 없다고 말했다.

North는 Secord의 비즈니스 파트너인 Albert Hakim이 스위스에서 North를 위해 설정한 200,000달러 투자 계정에 대해 알지 못했다고 주장했지만, Secord-Hakim Enterprise의 Willard I. Zucker를 만나기 위해 아내 Betsy를 1986년 3월 필라델피아로 보냈다는 사실은 인정했습니다. 재무 관리자. 노스는 벳시 노스의 필라델피아 여행 목적이 노스가 위험한 이란 여행을 마치고 돌아올 경우를 대비해 주커에게 자신의 신분을 밝히기 위한 것이라고 믿었다고 말했다. North는 그가 사망할 경우 "적절하고 명예로우며 어떤 식으로든 잘못된 것이 없는" 조치가 취해질 것이라고 가정했으며 투자 계좌가 Hakim의 뇌물 시도임을 부인했습니다.

[하킴은 1989년 11월 부분적으로 20만 달러 투자 계좌 개설을 근거로 북한의 급여를 보충하려 시도한 혐의에 대해 유죄를 인정했다. 하킴 장 참조.]

North는 자신의 생명에 대한 보고된 테러 위협에 대응하여 시스템을 수락했다는 설명을 제외하고 Secord의 주택 보안 시스템을 수락한 것에 대해 다른 사람들을 비난할 수 없었습니다. North는이란/콘트라 사건이 공개된 후 Secord에서 시스템 설치에 일했던 전직 CIA 요원인 Glenn Robinette와 지불 준비를 제안하는 거짓 소급 편지를 교환했다고 인정했습니다. &ldquo[I]나는 하는 것이 상당히 어리석은 일이었습니다.&rdquo North가 말했습니다.

Secord와 Hakim이 번 돈의 대부분은 미국 정부에 과도한 비용을 부과하거나 제대로 갚지 못한 데 대한 것이었습니다. 어떤 면에서 이러한 종류의 활동은 작업 설계에 포함되었습니다. 이란인과 이스라엘인에게 과도한 비용을 부과함으로써, 그들은 콘트라로 전용할 자금을 얻을 수 있었습니다. 그러나 그들은 Contras뿐만 아니라 미국 정부에도 과도한 비용을 부과했고, 그들은 그들 자신을 위해 그 돈을 지켰습니다.

Ollie North의 근본적인 문제는 대통령과 그의 전체 국가 안보팀이 승인한 불법 작전을 수행하고 있다는 것이었습니다. 문제는 그의 실수로 인해 인질 석방을 보장하지 못한 채 콘트라 작전과 이란의 인질간 무기 거래가 폭로되었다는 사실이 밝혀졌습니다. 문제는 그가 문서를 갈기갈기 찢고 위증했다는 것입니다. 문제는 자신의 지위를 이용해 도둑질을 했다는 점이다. 그리고 그는 누구에게도 도둑질을 할 권한이 없었습니다.

돌이켜보면 Ollie North에게 이러한 작업을 맡기는 것이 현명한 결정이었다고 주장하는 사람은 아무도 없을 것입니다. 그리고 그것이 실수였던 가장 큰 이유는 북한이 피그만 작전을 방해한 사람들, 워터게이트 강도를 방해한 사람들, 베트남 기간 동안 라오스에서 그들에게 주어진 신뢰를 활용한 동일한 사람들을 활용했기 때문입니다. 동남아시아 헤로인을 세계 시장에 소개하기 위한 전쟁. 도덕은 이 승무원의 강점이 아니었고 무능하고 노출된 기록은 전설적이어야 하며 모든 비밀 작전 학교에서 가르쳐야 합니다.

나는 Oliver North를 National Rifle Association의 회장으로 임명하기로 결정한 사람들이 North&rsquos 도둑에 익숙하지 않고 실제 사람보다 North의 신화적인 전설에 더 많이 헌신하고 있다고 상당히 확신합니다. 그러나 그들은 그의 실제 실적 기록을 더 잘 고려했을 수 있습니다. Contras에 대한 그의 파이프라인은 Sandinistas가 North&rsquos 수송기 중 하나를 격추하고 Ted Shackley&rsquos 라오스 헤로인 밀매의 베테랑 조종사인 Eugene Hasenfus를 체포했을 때 노출되었습니다. North&rsquos는 이란인들과의 비밀 거래가 폭로되어 이란-콘트라 스캔들을 일으키고 이에 수반된 모든 법적 문제는 물론 로널드 레이건 대통령과 그의 후계자인 조지 H.W. 부시.

북한은 무기에 대해 많이 알고 있습니다. 그는 국제 무기 거래상과 외국 정부로부터 무기를 확보하는 방법을 알고 있습니다. 그는 그것들을 이곳저곳으로 옮기는 방법을 알고 있습니다. 그는 쉘 회사를 만들고 운송 및 항공 운송을 구매하기 위해 누구를 고용해야 하는지 알고 있습니다. 그는 모든 거래를 훑어보는 방법을 알고 있습니다.

그가 모르는 것은 그것을 피하는 방법입니다. 그가 모르는 것은 주어진 목표를 달성하는 방법입니다. 인질의 자유가 보장되지 않았습니다. 작전은 비밀로 남아 있지 않았습니다. 상관을 포함하여 관련된 모든 사람이 자신의 역할을 폭로하거나 은폐를 폭로했습니다.

NRA에게 가장 중요한 것은 노스가 자신에게 맡겨진 믿음을 이용해 훔쳐 세인트 로니 레이건까지 배신했다는 점이다.

NRA 회원들은 이 역사를 알아야 합니다. 왜냐하면 North가 우리 아이들 학교에 들어가려면 5개의 금속 탐지기를 거쳐야 한다고 말할 때 그들은 좋아할지 모르지만 North가 그의 본성을 따르고 의도하지 않은 방법을 알아낼 때 그들은 그것을 좋아하기 때문입니다. 그들의 돈에서 사기를 치면서 더러운 세탁물을 폭로하십시오.

그리고 NRA가 이미 외국 자금을 사용하여 국내 정치 캠페인에 불법적으로 자금을 조달하는 것과 관련된 범죄 행위를 목에 걸었다는 증거가 점점 더 많아짐에 따라 이제 수십 년 간의 연고를 가진 북한과 같은 사람을 불러들일 때입니다. 연이은 재앙?


올리버 노스의 비밀 유대인 역사

강력한 총기 지지 로비를 이끌 올리버 노스를 선택함에 있어 NRA(National Rifle Association)는 이란-콘트라 사건의 주모자이자 의회에 거짓말을 한 유죄 판결을 받은 중죄인 이상의 것을 얻고 있습니다. They’re also getting a rabidly pro-Israel Christian evangelist who for decades has been outing what he claims are anti-Semites in the U.S. government and chiding Palestinian leaders for not renouncing terrorism.

Just this past January, North led a 10-day trip to Israel for Freedom Alliance’s Holy Land Tour and Security Conference. “Together, we will visit Nazareth, the Jordan River, and the City of David we’ll dine on the Sea of Galilee and travel to places that make the words of the Old & New Testaments come alive,” wrote North in a letter to potential participants, posted on the website of Inspiration Cruises & Tours, which describes itself as a “Christian-owned and led company [that] turn[s] vacations into life-changing encounters in the best places on earth…. your opportunity to get away with God. … The privilege of serving the body of Christ and expanding His Kingdom on earth is what drives us to achieve ever-increasing levels of excellence.” The tour, North continued, would “explore the special relationship between the United States and Israel with informative seminars led by Israeli military, political and business leaders.” A “special relationship” in which North at one time was a key player. But I get ahead of myself.

North’s love affair with Israel is nothing new. At a 1989 Roundtable Prayer Breakfast for Israel at the National Religious Broadcasters convention sponsored by three Christian groups — the Religious Roundtable, the Brotherhood Forest of Israel, and Intercessors for America — North called on the Palestine Liberation Organization to condemn the murder of Israeli Olympic athletes in Munich, the Ma’alot massacre of schoolchildren, and the murder of Leon Klinghoffer on the Achille Lauro cruise ship. According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, North also recalled the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht, calling it “the day in which Adolf Hitler turned loose his jack-booted thugs to start one of the most murderous atrocities known to man.”

In his 1991 book “Under Fire,” North wrote that the U.S. government contained an “ingrained streak of anti-Semitism” and that the State Department exhibited a “long-standing and barely hidden pro-Arab tilt.” He also took on former Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger, writing that he “seemed to go out of his way to oppose Israel on any issue and to blame the Israelis for every problem in the Middle East,” attributing Weinberger’s antipathy toward the Jewish state to the latter’s “sensitivity about his own Jewish ancestry.”

But North of course is and always will be best known for his somewhat bizarre wheeling and dealing whereby this military assistant at the National Security Council oversaw arms sales to Ayatollah Khomeini-era Iran — he of “America is the Great Satan” — and used the profits to fund the anti-Sandinista campaign in Nicaragua by the Contras, in defiance of a Congressional ban on such assistance. In subsequent testimony before Congress, North himself termed the deal “a neat idea.”

In fact, the Iran-Contra deal was an outgrowth of secret arms sales of American weapons to Iran by Israel. Iran sought the weapons for its burgeoning struggle against Iraq, and in 1985 Iranian arms merchant Manucher Ghorbanifar and National Security Council consultant Michael Ledeen — the latter working for National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane — came a-calling in Washington. President Reagan himself approved the sales, funneled through Israel — which itself viewed this deal-with-the-presumptive-devil in the same “Godfather”-like terms held by the U.S., in which the enemy of my enemy is my friend — over the objections of Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger and Secretary of State George Shultz. Saudi billionaire oil and arms trader Adnan Khashoggi also played a role in financing the effort. All of those involved became household names when the deal became public knowledge (via a report in a Lebanese newspaper) and an investigation was launched by a Joint House-Senate Committee, whose televised hearings were the biggest show out of Washington since Watergate a decade or so earlier. (Some termed the affair “Irangate.”)

There are those, however, who view North as having betrayed Israel with his plan to use the profits to fund the Contras. In order to do so, North removed Israel as the middleman in selling arms to Iran. Israel paid North back by cooperating with the congressional investigation, which resulted in the indictment of 14 administration officials (including Weinberger) and conviction of 11, including North. Of these, all either had their convictions reversed on appeal (mostly due to technicalities) or were pardoned by George H.W. Bush in the waning days of his presidency.

Some also see more than a modicum of irony in having North take the helm of an organization that pledges fealty to the U.S. Constitution, albeit mostly focused on one particular amendment to the founding organizational document of the United States.

“For an organization so concerned with law and order, picking a new leader who admitted that he lied to Congress is a truly remarkable decision,” said Avery Gardiner, co-president of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. The gun lobby, continued Gardiner, “will be led by a man whose own concealed carry permit was revoked because he was ‘not of good character.’”


Oliver North - History

Furthering the Version

Reagan-myth worshipers would prefer to erase from the national conscious and conscience the embarrassing events of the final years of his second term, especially the entire Iran-Contra affair. It was, for a lot of people, yet another case of a Republican administration getting caught up in another humiliating scandal. In many ways, the Iran-Contra affair went far beyond anything seen in the Watergate hearings.

The threat of another Cuba had preoccupied the Reagan administration and, with the openly declared mission of the Nicaraguan Marxist regime to spread revolution throughout the region, the policy had been to arm and train right wing insurgent militias called the Contras.

However, direct funding of this insurgency was made illegal through the Boland Amendment -the name given to three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting US government assistance to the Contras militants.

In order to circumvent these laws, senior officials of the Reagan administration decided to continue arming and training the Contras secretly and in violation of the law as enacted in the Boland Amendment. Senior Reagan administration officials started what they came to call "the Enterprise."

Additionally, in order to raise funds- obviously everything had to be “off the books”- another scheme was devised to finance their illegal funding of the Contras insurgency. At that time, Saddam Hussein of Iraq, one of our allies, had launched into a bloody war against Iran. Arm sales to Iran, a violation of the official US policy of an arms embargo, were established, initially through third parties and then directly, and the profits were funneled into funding for the Contras. (That is the shortest possible version.)

Eventually, as could have been expected, the whole thing, blew up in everybody’s faces. The Democratic-controlled Congress was enraged by the administration’s lies and conducted a bi-partisan investigation.

People forget and people forgive, but mostly they forget. However, I do recall North's six-day appearance before the a special joint House and Senate investigating committee investigating Iran-Contra events. He was for a lot of viewers one of the stars in what seemed to be a tiresome redux of Watergate. All summer long the hearings appeared on daytime television, like a third rate sumer stock production of an obscure historical tragedy.

Political bias along party lines was painfully clear. One one side, a group of white haired pale faced men made long monotone speeches that somehow became questions at the last moment. On the other side, another pale face, accompanied by a whispering lawyer, would usually answer, “I can’t recall that, Senator.” All the events seemed practiced and self-serving. Nobody seemed very interested in either asking the right questions or giving the honest answers. A sad spectacle, in every sense of the word.

Then along came Oliver North, the dashing ex-Marine, in full military regalia, a stamp collection of medals over his heart. Handsome and well-spoken, he oozed charisma and patriotism. This was a hero, people remarked at the time. When he spoke, it was difficult not to be moved. Unlike so many of those that testified before him, North appeared committed to his mission and stood proudly to defend his noble ideals. Based only on appearance, North was a hero in the Iran-Contra scandal. Yet, as details emerged from a closer committee examination, things were not nearly as black and white as they initially appeared.

Lt. Colonel North freely admitted that he had shredded documents, lied to Congress and falsified official records. Such seeming forthrightness was courageous and admirable. In a weird mix of political spin and legalese, North told the committee, "I was provided with additional input that was radically different from the truth. I assisted in furthering that version."

The final opinion of the committee was not at all favorable to President Reagan. With the sharp criticism of the president, the report concluded that a “cabal of zealots” in the administration had managed to take control of key aspects of foreign policy. Among the targets of the criticism were Lt. Col. Oliver L. North, the former National Security Council aide Rear Adm. John M. Poindexter, the president’s former national security adviser William J. Casey, the former director of central intelligence and Attorney General Edwin Meese III.

Despite strong condemnation in the final report on the Iran-Contra Scandal. for a number of House Republicans, North was, and is still today, unquestionably a hero. Sean Wilentz points out in a New York Times' op-ed piece: .

At the conclusion of the hearings, a dissenting minority report codified these views. The report’s chief author was a former resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, Michael J. Malbin, who was chosen by Mr. Cheney as a member of the committee’s minority staff. Another member of the minority’s legal staff, David S. Addington, was later the vice president’s chief of staff.

The minority report stressed the charge that the inquiry was a sham, calling the majority report’s allegations of serious White House abuses of power “hysterical.” The minority admitted that mistakes were made in the Iran-contra affair but laid the blame for them chiefly on a Congress that failed to give consistent aid to the Nicaraguan contras and then overstepped its bounds by trying to restrain the White House.

The Reagan administration, according to the report, had erred by failing to offer a stronger, principled defense of what Mr. Cheney and others considered its full constitutional powers. Not only did the report defend lawbreaking by White House officials it condemned Congress for having passed the laws in the first place.

Like so much of the Neo-conservative rhetoric, tin the dissenting report was much picking and choosing of statements made by founding fathers to give weight to their argument. For example, a bit of the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton’s remarks endorsing “energy in the executive” gave an aura of approval. If anything, according to the dissenting minority report, the powers of president should be less restrained and limited by the legal restrictions imposed by Congress. As Wilentz notes:.

Hamilton certainly desired a strong executive, but warned that it would be “utterly unsafe and improper” to give a president complete control over foreign policy.

In truth, as Mr. Cheney has also remarked, the struggle for him began much earlier, during the Nixon administration. A business partner says that Mr. Cheney told him that Watergate was merely “a political ploy by the president’s enemies.” For Mr. Cheney, the scandal was not Richard Nixon’s design for an imperial presidency but the Democrats’ drive for an imperial Congress.

Still, Mr. Cheney’s quest to accumulate unaccountable executive power — a quest that has received much attention of late — took a major turn 20 years ago. And part of Iran-contra’s legacy has now become a legacy of the Bush-Cheney administration.

The Federalist Papers , incidentally, have a great deal of interesting things to say about the potential for governmental abuse of power, such as, “If Tyranny and Oppression come to this land, it will be in the guise of fighting a foreign enemy.” Those are, of course, excerpts that Dick Cheney would have skimmed.

Madison also warned against another kind of threat to the republic which would relate to North’s later career. In Federalist No. 10, for example, in answer to Hamilton, Madison warned against the the destructive role of faction in breaking apart the republic. He defines a faction as "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a minority or majority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community." He identifies the most serious source of faction to be the diversity of opinion in political life which leads to dispute over fundamental issues such as what regime or religion should be preferred.

Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may, by intrigue, by corruption, or by other means, first obtain the suffrages, and then betray the interests, of the people.

James Madison, November 22, 1787

In any case, in the minority report, we can see, perhaps, an unheeded warning for the future. For in different Republican administration, it was precisely this disdain of oversight and contempt for Congress- and the Constitution- that was to led to the abuse of the Bush II administration, with Cheney presiding.

Bungled Justice

Mr. North was eventually convicted of three federal felonies — receiving an illegal payment, obstruction of a Congressional inquiry and destroying official documents, although an appellate court held that his testimony delivered under Congressional immunity may have affected jurors and reversed one conviction.

In fact, North served no jail time whatsoever which left both his admirers and his detractor scratching her heads in disbelief.

According to a New York times article Mr. North, the former Marine Corps lieutenant colonel and National Security Council aide, was convicted of destroying documents, accepting the gift of a $13,800 home security system and abetting the obstruction of Congress. [Federal District] Judge Gesell could have imposed a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison and fines of $750,000. Instead, he imposed a $150,000 fine, two years of probation, a three-year suspended sentence and an order to perform 1,200 hours of community service.

The decision was, no doubt, a sound political move. A campaign had been underway for a presidential pardon which would have put then president George Bush, Sr. in a particularly difficult situation. George Bush I, vice president for Reagan, along with others in the Reagan cabinet, had been the prime backers in the arms for hostages plan. No doubt Bush was delighted and relieved. Yet this decision was proof enough for most people that justice, according to the Far Right, was only an admirable but flexible ideal.

In fact, president George Bush, Sr., formerly vice- president during the operation, would later go on to pardon Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger. along with five other Iran/contra defendants.

The Weinberger pardon marked the first time a President ever pardoned someone in whose trial he might have been called as a witness, because the President was knowledgeable of factual events underlying the case. Apparently the prevailing notion was: some things are just too important to leave for justice to decide .

With each Republican cycle, the scope of the abuse of power seems to grow larger and affect more innocent lives. If Watergate was a sordid tale of a bungled burglary, Iran-Contra was a pathetic account of a bungled covert operation, and so many of the same players returned for the next act, in a deadly serious performance of a bungled war. Isn't it only fair to ask what the next bit of theater will be? A bungled overthrow of the government? A bungled Armageddon?

"Right-wing extremism in the United States can be broadly divided into those groups, movements, and adherents that are primarily hate-oriented (based on hatred of particular religious, racial or ethnic groups), and those that are mainly anti-government, rejecting federal authority in favor of state or local authority, or rejecting government authority entirely. It may include groups and individuals that are dedicated to a single issue, such as opposition to abortion or immigration."

Proposed imposition of firearms restrictions and weapons bans likely would attract new members into the ranks of right-wing extremist groups, as well as potentially spur some of them to begin planning and training for violence against the government. The high volume of purchases and stockpiling of weapons and ammunition by right-wing extremists in anticipation of restrictions and bans in some parts of the country continue to be a primary concern to law enforcement.

Returning veterans possess combat skills and experience that are attractive to right-wing extremists. DHS/ I & A is concerned that righ-twing extremists will attempt to recruit and radicalize returning veterans in order to boost their violent capabilities.

Race was also mentioned in the report.

He concludes with this rather cheap shot:

In his own mind and the collective mind of Fox news, Oliver North has been defamed and victimized and long misunderstood. He has said, "I'm like John Wayne. I only play good guys." (The operative word, one might assume, is "play.")

On a radio talk show with Randi Rhodes , North himself appeared to have swallowed his own revisionist history of the Iran-Contra events when he claimed "No-one even charged me of lying to Congress" Rhodes immediately pointed out that according to the Report of the Independent Counsel:


"Count One: The indictment charged that North and McFarlane obstructed Congress by falsely denying in three letters North's contra- assistance efforts.

"Counts Two, Three, and Four: False statements to Congress, charging specific misrepresentations in the three letters described in Count One."

Later he would tell listeners that "Lawrence Walsh had every record from my office, he had absolutely everything." Again the report by Independent Counsel prove the contrary.

Perhaps most outrageously, North refutes all the allegations against him despite the record.

Oliver North: "No-one ever convicted of me of lying to Congress" Randi Rhodes: "You were convicted in a court of law"

Oliver North: "I am denying it"

Report of the Independent Counsel:

"On May 4, 1989, he was found guilty of three counts, including aiding and abetting obstruction of Congress, shredding and altering official documents, and accepting an illegal gratuity from Secord."

Such confabulations shouldn't surprise anybody when the interview begins with a statement from North as, "Randi, Randi, one of the reasons why liberals don’t make it in radio is they can’t tell the truth. First of all. "

Forever Denied


According to the San Jose Mercury News Gary Webb’s expose and subsequent book Dark Alliance: the CIA, the contras, and the crack cocaine explosion cites the Kerry report on the connections between terrorism and drugs the CIA was aware of the cocaine transactions and the large shipments of drugs into the U.S. by Contra personnel. Webb charged that the Reagan administration shielded inner-city drug dealers from prosecution in order to raise money for the Contras, especially after Congress passed the Boland Amendment , which prohibited direct Contra funding.

In 1987, the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics, and International Operations of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations began an investigation focusing on allegations received by the subcommittee chairman, Senator John Kerry, concerning illegal gun-running and narcotics trafficking associated with the Contras. A two-year investigation produced a 1,166-page report in 1989 analyzing the involvement of Contra groups and supporters in drug trafficking, and the role of United States government officials in these activities. Allegations of cocaine trafficking by Contras also arose during the investigation conducted by Independent Counsel Lawrence Walsh into the Iran-Contra affair. Drug trafficking allegations, however, were not the focus of that inquiry and the Walsh report included no findings on these allegations.

The Kerry Report was, in fact, a well-researched and scathing document which established a clear relationship between high level officials in government and drug cartels. Among the allegations, here are a few as stated in the introduction of the report which seem particularly relevant.

We learned how high United States officials, including Lt. Col. Oliver North, went to the Justice Department to intercede on behalf of a man convicted of a narco-terrorist assassination plot against a Honduran President--because the man had been the administration's liaison to the Contras.

We also found out that the State Department chose four companies controlled by drug traffickers to provide assistance to the Contras. As a result, drug traffickers got funds out of the United States public treasury as part of our Contra humanitarian assistance program.

We were told by the head of the Drug Enforcement Agency that someone at the National Security Counsel leaked information on a DEA drug sting operation against the Sandinistas in order to influence a congressional vote on Contra aid, causing the operation to abort.

After the Gary Webb report in the Mercury News, the CIA Inspector General Frederick Hitz was assigned to investigate these allegations in 1996. Although the investigators promised to release their report in three months, it was only pressure by both the Washington Post and New York Times, that news stated that Hitz had found no “direct of indirect” connection between the CIA and cocaine traffickers.

When the report was finally the release, much of the controversy had dissolved. The implications of the report were virtually ignored by the media. According to the book, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press , by authors Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, the Hitz report described a cable from the CIA's Directorate of Operations dated October 22, 1982, describing a prospective meeting between Contra leaders in Costa Rica for "an exchange in [the United States] of narcotics for arms, which then are shipped to Nicaragua." The two main Contra groups, US arms dealers, and a lieutenant of a drug ring which imported drugs from Latin America to the US west coast were set to attend the Costa Rica meeting. The lieutenant trafficker was also a Contra, and the CIA knew that there was an arms-for-drugs shuttle and did nothing to stop it.

The United States was not the only nation investigating North's involvement with shady organizations. For example, in the second report by the Costa Rican Assembly's Commission on Narcotics Trafficking , an examination of the explosion of cocaine and drug trafficking in during the 1980s, the commission recommended that that former ambassador Lewis Tambs , CIA station chief Joseph F. Fernandez , and Lt. Col. Oliver North be forever denied entry in Costa Rica, a recommendation adopted by Costa Rican President Oscar Arias.

Easy Hero

North ran unsuccessfully as a Republican Senate candidate in Virginia. On the eve of the election, former first lady Nancy Reagan told a reporter that North had lied to her husband when discussing Iran-Contra with the former president, effectively stopping his campaign.

In this current Wonderland of Republican politics, who knows whether Palin might not choose him as her running mate? Given the respective characters at play, there is a kind of warped logic about it.

North has penned several books, fiction and non-fiction (though many reviewers wouldn't care to distinguish one from the other). It has been a gradual but steady rehabilitation of his image with the kind assistance of his Fox Friends.

In past years, with his pal Sean Hannity, he has helped organize and is the honorary chairman for the Freedom Alliance , whose mission, according to its website, "is to advance the American heritage of freedom by honoring and encouraging military service, defending the sovereignty of the United States and promoting a strong national defense."

Freedom Alliance , a 501(c)3 educational and charitable foundation, was founded in 1990 by Lt.Col Oliver L. North, who now serves as the organization's honorary chairman. We will work to "keep America strong, keep America prosperous, and keep America free," said North upon the founding of Freedom Alliance.

For the last several years, Sean Hannity and the Freedom Alliance “charity” have conducted “Freedom Concerts” across America. The organization is raises funds for scholarships for the children of fallen soldiers and to pay severely wounded war vets. However, ultra-conservative blogger Debbie Schlussel charged that entire arrangement was nothing more than a scam.

In fact, less than 20%–and in two recent years, less than 7% and 4%, respectively–of the money raised by Freedom Alliance went to these causes, while millions of dollars went to expenses, including consultants and apparently to ferry the Hannity posse of family and friends in high style. And, despite Hannity’s statements to the contrary on his nationally syndicated radio show, few of the children of fallen soldiers got more than $1,000-$2,000, with apparently none getting more than $6,000, while Freedom Alliance appears to have spent tens of thousands of dollars for private planes. Moreover, despite written assurances to donors that all money raised would go directly to scholarships for kids of the fallen heroes and not to expenses, has begun charging expenses of nearly $500,000 to give out just over $800,000 in scholarships.

Freedom Alliance has strongly denied such allegations , calling them "false and malicious."

His last book, American Heroes he wrote "first hand accounts of faithful American heroes in the fight against global terrorism and jihad." Interestingly, but perhaps not unexpectedly, the book shares a copyright with Fox.

He has a comfortable life, I am sure, a warm home and a large family. North has four children, eleven grandchildren, and lives with his wife in Virginia.

He has plenty of people to share his thoughts with and a warm blanket. He is able to come and go as he pleases, and he has the luxury of choosing his meals. Whenever he wishes, he can step outside and look at the sky.

Not so far away from this decorated hero's Virginia home, however, in a Quantico prison, there is another soldier who is considered a hero by many. And, not unlike Oliver North, many consider him a traitor who betrayed his country. Without standing trial or without being convicted, Bradley Manning has already served more time in prison than Oliver North. Many patriotic Americans have condemned Manning. It is, for them, a clear case Manning swore an oath and he broke that oath, a crime that Oliver North shares with Manning.

North, at the commencement of his testimony before the Congressional hearings back in 1986, boldly stated something Bradley Manning might well have said, "I am here to accept responsibility for that which I did. I will not accept responsibility for that which I did not do. I came here to tell you the truth, the good, the bad and the ugly. I never considered myself a fall guy. I know what I did. I know why I did it. I'm not ashamed of it."

However, the obvious difference between Manning and North is that North made this noble declaration, not facing life in prison or a firing squad and not in solitary confinement, but under a grant of immunity. Given Lt. Col. North's Fifth amendment objections when subpoenaed, the only way to obtain his testimony was to compel it through a grant of use immunity. Despite the fact that North was the target of an a criminal investigation, It was felt that without his testimony the record would have been incomplete. Nothing he told Congress would, or could, be used against him in a criminal proceeding. Being honest, therefore, would cost him nothing.

Under those circumstances,. it's fairly easy to be a hero.

Drawing Comparisons

This week, the military brought 22 new charges - including one that carries the death penalty - against Pfc. Bradley E. Manning. That capital offense, according to the statement that outlined the 22 charges, was aiding and abetting the enemy- although it was not clear who the proposed enemy was. Presumably, the rest of the world.

While military prosecutors have recommended life in prison instead, "the presiding military judge would have the authority to dismiss the prosecution's recommendation and impose the death penalty," according to NBC .

Manning stated in his private chats to an informer, “God knows what happens now.. hopefully worldwide discussion, debates, and reforms. If not… than we’re doomed.. as a species. I will officially give up on the society we have if nothing happens. I want people to see the truth… regardless of who they are… because without information, you cannot make informed decisions as a public.”

On the other hand, perhaps the same defense could be used in Manning's case as well, Here is a statement made by Obama in a town hall meeting for the future leaders of China:


Oliver North - History

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Oliver North

The scandal grew worse for the Reagan administration after it became clear that National Security Council member Oliver North had ordered the destruction and concealment of documents related to the Iran and Contra arms sale. In July 1987, North testified before a televised hearing of a special joint congressional committee created to investigate the Iran-Contra scandal. North admitted that he had lied when describing the deal to Congress in 1985, stating that he had viewed the Nicaraguan Contras as “freedom fighters” engaged in a war against the Communist Sandinista government. Based on his testimony, North was indicted on a series of federal felony charges and ordered to stand trial.

During the 1989 trial, North’s secretary Fawn Hall testified that she had helped her boss shred, alter, and remove official United States National Security Council documents from his White House office. North testified that he had ordered the shredding of “some” documents in order to protect the lives of certain individuals involved in the arms deal.

On May 4, 1989, North was convicted of bribery and obstruction of justice and was sentenced to a three-year suspended prison term, two years on probation, $150,000 in fines, and 1,200 hours of community service. However, on July 20, 1990, his conviction was vacated when a federal court of appeals ruled that North’s televised 1987 testimony to Congress may have improperly influenced the testimony of some witnesses at his trial. After taking office in 1989, President George H.W. Bush issued presidential pardons to six other individuals who had been convicted for their involvement in the scandal.


Oliver North Worked With Cocaine Traffickers to Arm Terrorists. Now He’ll Be President of the NRA.

The National Rifle Association has always been clear about drugs: They’re terrifying.

Last year, NRA CEO Wayne LaPierre darkly warned that members of drug gangs “are infiltrating law enforcement and even the military.” In 2013, LaPierre proclaimed that “Latin American drug gangs have invaded every city of significant size in the United States” and are a key part of the “hellish world” that awaits us in the future. When Charlton Heston was president of the NRA in the 1990s, he declared that regular Americans would soon be besieged by 10,000 drug dealers freed from prison by the Clinton administration.

It seems odd, then, that the next president of the NRA will soon be Oliver North, who spent years in the 1980s working together with large-scale cocaine traffickers and protecting a notorious narco-terrorist from the rest of the U.S. government.

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This reality about North has been largely covered up, first by North himself and then by Fox News and the passage of time. Thirty years later, it’s been almost totally forgotten. But the facts remain genuinely appalling.

North was an active-duty Marine when he joined the Reagan administration’s National Security Council in 1981. One of Reagan’s top priorities was organizing and funding the Contras, a guerrilla military force, to overthrow the revolutionary socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. But the Contras engaged in extensive, gruesome terrorism against Nicaraguan civilians. Congress gradually reduced and then eliminated appropriations supporting them, leading the Reagan administration to secretly search for money elsewhere.

According to the report from a later congressional investigation, North was put in charge of this operation, which participants dubbed “The Enterprise.”

"Report of the congressional committees investigating the Iran-Contra Affair,” U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran U.S. Senate Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition, 1987

North enthusiastically looked for cash wherever he could find it and led many of the clandestine schemes that later became known as the Iran-Contra scandal. The Sultan of Brunei donated $10 million (which North’s secretary Fawn Hall accidentally wired to the wrong Swiss bank account), and Saudi Arabia ponied up as well. North also pushed what he called “a neat idea”: selling U.S. military equipment to Iran, with the proceeds passed along to the Contras.

Meanwhile, the Contras had a neat idea of their own: facilitating cocaine trafficking through Central America into the U.S., with a cut going toward supporting their war against the Sandinistas. Some Contras were themselves cocaine traffickers, and others were simply happy to make alliances of convenience with drug cartels.

There’s no evidence that North actively 원한 cocaine to be smuggled into the U.S. It was simply that he had other priorities. But was he aware of the Contras’ drug trafficking? 예. Did he try to shield one of “his” cocaine traffickers from consequences from the other branches of the U.S. government? 예. Did he work together with a known drug lord? 예.

All in all, North’s connections to drug trafficking were so egregious that in 1989 he was banned from entering Nicaragua’s neighbor Costa Rica by Óscar Arias, the country’s president and 1987 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.

This may seem shocking to the easily shocked. But it’s all been documented in various government investigations. All you need in order to learn about it is curiosity and an internet connection. For instance, here’s a screenshot from the CIA’s website about the Nicaraguan Revolutionary Democratic Alliance, or ADREN by its Spanish acronym, which was later folded into the Contras:

"Allegations of Connections Between CIA and The Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States,” CIA, 1998

The full extent of North’s complicity in cocaine trafficking will never be known. When the Iran-Contra scandal story broke in November 1986, he ordered Hall to destroy so many documents that the shredder malfunctioned, and she had to ask White House maintenance to come and fix it. Moreover, when North was removed from his National Security Council job, he took with him 2,848 pages of daily notes — which legally belonged to the federal government. By the time a congressional investigation was finally able to examine the notes, North and his lawyers had redacted huge amounts of information. Nonetheless, 543 of the pages mentioned drugs or drug trafficking, with the probe finding that “in many of these cases, material in the Notebooks adjacent to the narcotics references has been deleted.”

"Drugs, Law Enforcement And Foreign Policy,” U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1989

But despite North’s cover-up, what we do know for sure is incredibly damning.

Perhaps most significantly, according to North’s own notes he met with Panama’s then-dictator Manuel Noriega in London in September 1986 to collaborate on a plan for Noriega to support the Contras in return for American money and arms. They discussed sabotaging a Nicaraguan airport and oil refinery, as well as creating a program to train Contra and Afghan mujahedeen commandos in Panama with Israeli help. (It’s not completely clear, but North appears to have written that “Rabin” – i.e., Yitzhak Rabin, who was then Israel’s minister of defense – “approves.”)

North was clearly enthusiastic about the potential partnership with Noriega. In an earlier email selling the proposal to one of his superiors, he wrote that “we might have available a very effective, very secure means of doing some of the things which must be done if the Nicaragua project is going to succeed. … I believe we could make the appropriate arrangements w/ reasonable OPSEC and deniability.”

Email, Oliver North to John Poindexter, May 8, 1986

But of course, Noriega was himself a powerful drug trafficker. Knowing this didn’t require a top-secret clearance: It was published on the front page of the New York Times three months before North met with him. According to the Times article, “A White House official said the most significant drug-running in Panama was being directed by General Noriega.”

The North-Noriega operation ultimately didn’t come to fruition the Iran-Contra affair was exposed just two months after they met. But the planning that did occur is conclusive evidence that North eagerly worked with drug dealers operating on the largest scale imaginable.

“Panama Strongman Said to Trade In Drugs, Arms and Illicit Money,” New York Times, June 11, 1986

North also went to great lengths to protect an ally who was a key participant in what the Justice Department called “the most significant case of narco-terrorism yet discovered.”

In 1984, José Bueso Rosa, a Honduran general, plotted with several others to assassinate the president of Honduras. They planned to fund the hit with the proceeds from selling 760 pounds of cocaine in the U.S. The FBI, however, had the participants under surveillance, intercepted the shipment when it arrived at a small airfield in Florida, and arrested everyone involved.

But Bueso had played a key role in Honduran support for the Contras. So North went to work to get him off as lightly as possible. (Bueso had not himself been charged with drug trafficking, but wiretaps made it obvious he participated in that part of the project.)

In email, North explained his plans to “cabal quietly” with other Reagan administration officials “to look at options: pardon, clemency, deportation, reduced sentence.” Eventually, North planned to have the case’s judge informed “in camera” — that is, secretly — about “our equities in this matter,” in order to push for leniency. Then, North wrote, it would be necessary to quietly brief Bueso, so that he wouldn’t “start singing songs nobody wants to hear.”

North didn’t get everything he wanted, but did succeed in having Bueso transferred to a “Club Fed” minimum security prison. Bueso was released on parole after 40 months.

도 있다 numerous documented examples of North being informed that members of the Contras were involved in drug trafficking, with no signs that North took any action.

For instance, after meeting with a key assistant, North wrote in his notebooks about a plane being used by the brother of a top Contra leader to ferry supplies from the U.S. to Central America. “Honduran DC-6 which is being used for runs out of New Orleans,” North jotted down, “is probably being used for drug runs into U.S.”

North testified in front of Congress that he’d passed this information along to the Drug Enforcement Administration. When later questioned by the Washington Post, the DEA, the State Department, and the U.S. Customs Service all stated that there was no evidence North ever said anything about the matter to them.

Oliver North, notes, August 9, 1985

The same aide who told North about the plane also informed him about the “potential involvement with drug running” of one Contra official and that another was “now involved in drug running out of Panama.” And after a call from another subordinate, North noted that the Contras were planning to buy weapons from a Honduran warehouse — and 󈫾 M to finance came from drugs.”

North was getting similar reports from outside the government as well. Dennis Ainsworth, a Republican real estate investor who’d volunteered to help the Contra cause, informed a U.S. attorney that the top Contra commander “was involved in drug trafficking,” but that the Nicaraguan community was frightened to come forward because “they could be blown away by Colombia hit squads.” Ainsworth said he’d tried to inform the White House about this but “we were put off by Ollie North,” and “I was even physically threatened by one of Ollie North’s associates.” (The U.S. attorney later wrote a memo with Ainsworth’s statements and transmitted it to the FBI.)

“Regarding Dennis Madden Ainsworth, Information Concerning,” FBI, January 6, 1987

North and the NRA did not immediately respond to requests for comment on this history. When North ran for Senate in 1994, his campaign spokesperson said his involvement with the Bueso case was “old news and garbage and nobody cares about it.” In a 2004 appearance on Fox News, North called a congressional investigation that focused on the Contra-cocaine connection “a witch hunt” with witnesses “who clearly had a political agenda.”

But the extraordinarily sordid nature of North’s past will be clear to anyone who appraises it honestly. In announcing North’s appointment, Wayne LaPierre said there’s “no one better suited to serve as our president,” and he’s correct. Óscar Arias wrote Thursday that the NRA “finds in Oliver North a leader worthy of its mission.” Peter Kornbluh, who was co-director of the Iran-Contra documentation project at the National Security Archive, is even more straightforward: North, he says, is “the perfect pick to further the NRA’s reputation for favoring bloodshed and criminality over responsible gun control and ownership.”


비디오 보기: 출판 기념으로 6개월만에 김치라면 먹어봤어요!! 이벤트발표 (할 수있다 2022).


코멘트:

  1. Huxford

    죄송합니다. 절대적으로 나에게 다가오는 것은 아닙니다. 다른 사람은 무엇을 프롬프트 할 수 있습니까?

  2. Gunnar

    훌륭한 메시지 bravo))))

  3. Melchoir

    무질서한 문구;)

  4. Tojabar

    Just dare to do this once again!

  5. Zadornin

    얼마나 귀여운 메시지



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