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오웬 튜더

오웬 튜더


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Owen Tudor, 일명 Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudor(c. 1437 CE), 영국의 Henry V(r. 1413-1422 CE)의 전 부인이자 영국의 Henry VI(r. 1422-61 & 1470-71 CE)의 어머니 ). 부부에게는 여러 자녀가 ​​있었는데 그 중 한 명은 에드먼드 튜더(Edmund Tudor)였으며 그의 아들 헨리 튜더는 잉글랜드의 헨리 7세(r. 1485-1509 CE)가 되어 튜더 왕가를 설립했습니다. Tudors는 많은 사람들이 국가의 황금기로 간주하는 1603년까지 영국을 통치했습니다. 장미 전쟁(1455-1487 CE) 왕조 분쟁 동안 헨리 6세의 열렬한 지지자였던 오웬 튜더(Owen Tudor)는 서기 1461년 요크 세력에 의해 체포되어 참수되었습니다.

발루아의 캐서린

발루아의 캐서린은 프랑스의 샤를 6세(r. 1380-1422 CE)의 딸이었고 서기 1420년 6월 2일 트루아 대성당에서 영국의 헨리 5세와 결혼했습니다. 이 결혼은 백년 전쟁(1337-1453 CE) 동안 1415년 Agincourt에서 프랑스에 대한 Henry의 대승의 결과였습니다. 잉글랜드 왕이 노르망디와 파리를 함락시키면서 서기 1420년 5월에 유리한 트루아 조약을 체결할 수 있었습니다. 이 조약에 따르면 앙리는 샤를 6세가 사망한 후 프랑스의 왕이 됩니다. 새 정권은 헨리와 캐서린의 결혼을 통해 옛 정권과 연결될 것입니다. 불행하게도 헨리는 기원 1422년에 아마도 이질로 사망했고 두 달도 채 되지 않아 프랑스 왕이 될 기회를 놓쳤습니다. 샤를 6세는 서기 1422년 10월 21일에 사망했습니다. 헨리는 1429년 11월에 헨리 6세(Henry VI)로 즉위하는 그의 어린 이름을 딴 아들이 계승했습니다.

현재 전 왕비이자 재위 중인 어린 왕의 어머니인 캐서린은 남은 여생을 은퇴한 생활에 만족하지 않았습니다. 그녀는 집안의 일원인 웨일스 귀족과 비밀 연애를 하고 있었습니다. 역사가 나이젤 존스는 그들의 관계가 어떻게 시작되었는지에 대해 다음과 같이 설명합니다.

발루아의 캐서린은 인생의 전성기에 있는 건장한 젊은 여성으로 남겨졌습니다. 그녀는 오랫동안 독신으로 남아 있지 않았습니다. 혈통이 불분명한 잘 생긴 젊은 웨일스인 Owen Tudor는 그녀의 옷장지기가 되었습니다. 낭만적인 소문에 따르면 오웬은 술에 취해 비틀거리며 여왕의 무릎에 앉았을 때 여왕의 주의를 끌었다. 호기심이 생긴 그녀는 그가 알몸으로 수영할 때 그를 염탐했고 [그리고] 그녀가 본 것을 좋아했습니다...

(99-100)

Owen의 배경은 불명확할 수 있지만 우리는 그가 1400년경에 Meredudd Tudor와 Dafydd Fychan의 딸인 Margaret의 아들로 태어났다는 것을 알고 있습니다. Tudors 또는 Tewdwrs는 Deheubrath의 왕이었고 웨일즈 북부에서 영지를 소유했습니다. 그들은 곧 더 높이 올라가 이복 형제 자매들을 관대하게 보호하는 역할을 했던 헨리 6세가 그들에게 부여한 두 개의 백작을 영국에서 차지하게 될 것입니다.

투옥과 죽음

영국 의회는 1428년에 캐서린이 왕의 동의 없이 재혼하는 것을 금지했지만 전 여왕은 이를 무시하고 어쨌든 비밀리에 오웬과 결혼했습니다. 이 조합은 서기 1436년까지 비밀로 유지되었지만 대중에게 알려지자 캐서린은 런던 외곽의 버몬지(Bermondsey)에 있는 수녀원으로 은퇴해야 했고 그곳에서 그녀는 이듬해 일찍 사망했습니다. Owen은 더 나빴고 Newgate 교도소에 갇혔습니다. 웨일스인은 1438년에 탈출에 성공하여 그의 고향 웨일즈에 숨었습니다. 오웬은 헨리 6세를 지원하기 위해 군대를 모았을 때 운이 좋아졌지만 서기 1461년 2월 모티머의 십자가 전투 후 오웬은 요크군에게 생포되었습니다. 랭커스터 가문과 요크 가문 사이의 왕조 분쟁인 장미 전쟁이 계속되자 헤리퍼드 시장에서 참수형을 당했습니다.

사랑의 역사?

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Valois의 Owen Tudor와 Catherine은 다섯 명의 자녀를 두었고 Tudor 왕조가 탄생했습니다.

전통에 따르면 오웬은 사형이 임박했을 때 "한때 캐서린 여왕의 무릎에 놓였던 머리가 이제 사형 집행인의 재고 위에 놓이게 될 것"이라고 한탄했습니다(Jones, 107에서 인용). 가혹한 형이 집행된 후 그 지역의 미친 여자가 머리를 씻고 머리를 빗고 촛불로 에워쌌다고 합니다. 그날이 촛불 축제였기 때문입니다. Owen Tudor는 Hereford의 Greyfriars에 묻혔습니다.

튜더 가문의 탄생

Valois의 Owen Tudor와 Catherine은 5명의 자녀(3명의 아들과 2명의 딸)를 두고 튜더 왕조가 탄생했습니다. 부부의 아들 중 한 명은 펨브로크 백작 재스퍼 튜더(Jasper Tudor, l. 1431-1495 CE)로 나중에 영국 군주제를 위해 웨일스를 효과적으로 통치하게 됩니다. 또 다른 아들은 리치먼드 백작 에드먼드 튜더(Edmund Tudor, l. 1430-1456 CE)로, 랭커스터 공작 곤트의 증손녀이자 잉글랜드 에드워드 3세(Edward III of England)( 1312-1377 CE). 에드먼드와 마가렛 사이에는 아들 헨리 튜더(Henry Tudor, b. 1457 CE)가 있었는데, 그는 어머니를 통해 비록 거리가 멀기는 하지만 랭커스터 가문과의 불법적인 연결을 주장할 수 있었습니다. 헨리 튜더(Henry Tudor)는 태어나기 3개월 전에 전염병으로 사망한 아버지 에드먼드(Edmund)를 전혀 알지 못했습니다.

일련의 죽음과 사고를 통해, 그리고 Mortimer's Cross에서의 패배와 그의 삼촌 Jasper Tudor가 프랑스로 망명한 후, Henry Tudor는 장미 전쟁의 마지막 단계에서 영국 왕위를 위한 주요 랭커스터 후보가 되었습니다. 흥미롭게도 헨리는 당시에 리치먼드의 헨리(그가 아버지로부터 물려받은 백작 이후에)로 알려져 있었고 현대 역사가들이 그 기간 동안 모든 것을 '튜더'라고 부르는 것에 대한 사랑에도 불구하고 튜더 성은 거의 사용되지 않았습니다. 그 또는 그의 후계자들.

랭커스터 명분의 우두머리인 헨리는 계속해서 인기 없는 요크주의자 영국의 리처드 3세(r. 1483-1485 CE)에 도전하여 전복시켰고 1485년에 첫 번째 튜더 왕가인 잉글랜드의 헨리 7세의 대관을 받았습니다. 헨리 7세가 1486년에 영국의 에드워드 4세(r. 1461-70 CE & 1471-83 CE)의 딸인 요크의 엘리자베스(1466-1503 CE)와 결혼했을 때, 요크와 랭커스터의 두 라이벌 가문은 마침내 통합되었습니다. 다음 세기의 군주는 이제 튜더 왕조가 되었으며 영국의 헨리 8세(r. 1509-1547 CE)와 잉글랜드의 엘리자베스 1세(r. 1558-1603 CE)와 같은 위대한 이름을 포함합니다.


튜더스: 왕조 소개

튜더 왕조는 가장 유명한 영국 왕조로 영화와 텔레비전 덕분에 유럽 역사의 최전선에 이름이 남아 있습니다. 물론 Tudors는 사람들의 관심을 끌만한 것이 없으면 미디어에 등장하지 않을 것이며 Tudors - Henry VII, 그의 아들 Henry VIII 및 그의 세 자녀 Edward VI, Mary 및 Elizabeth는 9일 규칙에 의해서만 깨졌습니다. 레이디 제인 그레이 - 영국에서 가장 유명한 군주 두 명과 가장 높이 평가받는 세 군주로 구성되어 있으며, 각각은 매력적이고 때로는 불가사의한 성격을 가지고 있습니다.

Tudors는 평판만큼이나 행동도 중요합니다. 그들은 서유럽이 중세에서 근대 초기로 옮겨간 시기에 영국을 통치했고, 정부 행정, 왕실과 민중의 관계, 군주제의 이미지, 사람들이 숭배하는 방식에 변화를 가져왔다. 그들은 또한 영어 쓰기와 탐험의 황금기를 감독했습니다. 그들은 황금 시대(최근 엘리자베스 1세에 관한 영화로 여전히 사용되는 용어)와 유럽에서 가장 분열적인 가족 중 하나인 악명 높은 시대를 나타냅니다.


오웬 튜더 - 역사


오웬 튜더(1400-1461)
출생: 1400년, 아마도 Gwynedd의 Anglesey에서
로얄 서번트
사망: 1461년 2월 2일 Herefordshire, Hereford에서

헨리 7세 왕의 외할아버지인 오웨인 압 마레두드 압 투두르는 고대 웨일스의 가문에 속해 있었습니다. 그들은 신비의 남성 직계 후손이었다. 킹 카드로드 Calchfynedd(켈트족 Chilterns)와 Deheubarth 왕자(웨일즈 남서부)의 가까운 친척. 그들은 영국 왕 아래에서 많은 중요한 직책을 맡은 앵글시 출신의 지주 가족이었습니다. Owain의 아버지인 Maredudd는 1392년에 Anglesey의 Escheator였으며 또한 Bangor의 주교의 청지기였습니다. 그의 아내는 Dafydd Fychan ap Dafydd Llwyd의 딸인 Margaret이었습니다. Maredudd는 남자를 죽이고 불법으로 아내와 함께 Snowdon으로 도피했으며 그곳에서 Owain Tudor가 태어났지만 Maredudd는 혼자 도망쳤고 Owain은 그의 부재 중에 태어났을 가능성이 더 큽니다. 불행히도 Maredudd는 Owain Glyndwr의 외사촌이었고 가족이 그의 반항적 대의를 고수함으로써 은혜에서 비참하게 타락했습니다.

오웨인은 1415년 아쟁쿠르(Agincourt)에서 웨일즈 악단의 일원으로 참석해 두각을 드러냈고 헨리 5세에게 시신의 후예가 되는 상을 받았다고 한다. 당시 포스트. 그는 1421년 프랑스에서 왕의 청지기인 Walter Hungerford 경을 섬기고 있었던 것으로 보이며 아마도 그의 후원자를 통해 왕실에 갔을 것입니다.

Owain이 과부가 된 여왕 Valois의 Catherine과의 첫 만남을 둘러싼 이야기에서 사실과 허구를 구별하는 것은 어렵습니다. 그가 로열 무도회에서 서투르게 그녀의 무릎에 넘어졌을 때 처음으로 그녀의 관심을 끌게 된 것은 전통에 어느 정도 사실일 수 있습니다. 윈저 성. 나중에 장식에 따르면 여왕은 Owain이 템즈강에서 알몸으로 목욕하는 것을 비밀리에 지켜본 후 Owain에게 시선을 고정했다고 합니다. 하녀와 옷을 갈아입고 은밀히 그를 만나기로 했다. Owain은 랑데뷰 동안 다소 익숙해졌고 Catherine이 그를 밀어냈을 때 몸싸움이 있었고 그는 실수로 그녀의 뺨을 긁었습니다. 여왕을 섬기고 나서야 다음날 아침 오웨인은 자신의 애인의 진정한 정체를 깨달았습니다!

그녀는 Edmund Beaufort와 결혼하고 싶었지만 궁정의 파벌 때문에 그녀의 처남인 Duke of Gloucester의 방해를 받았다고 합니다. "그녀의 육욕을 억제할 수 없었습니다." 캐서린은 왕의 평의회에서 "합의적으로 그의 생명에 대한 복수를 할 수 없는" 평민을 찾았습니다. Owain은 확실히 1420년대에 Dowager-Queen의 방에서 하인이 되었고 그녀의 옷장 서기로 임명되었을 수 있습니다. 여왕과 그녀의 연인은 도시에 있을 때 주로 Baynard의 성에 거주했으며 월링포드 성 버크셔에있을 때 도시에서. Owain Tudor와의 결혼 결합이 정확히 언제 이루어졌는지는 단정하기 어렵지만 아마도 1428년경으로 추정되지만 항상 합법적인 결혼으로 받아들여져 온 것 같습니다. 그해 초에 통과된 법안은 왕의 동의 없이 선비와 결혼하는 것을 중대한 범죄로 규정하고, 당시에는 이 문제에 대해 아무 것도 알려지지 않았다는 증거입니다. 은폐되었습니다.

훗날 리치먼드 백작이자 헨리 7세 왕의 아버지인 장남 에드먼드는 1430년 하트퍼드셔의 해덤에서 태어났습니다. 1년 후 둘째 아들인 재스퍼(후에 펨브로크 백작과 베드퍼드 공작)가 뒤를 이었습니다. 그리고 성인이 되어 웨스트민스터의 수도사가 된 오웨인이 있었습니다. 그들에게는 분명히 어린 나이에 죽은 딸이 있었지만 윌튼의 그레이 경 레이놀드의 아내인 토마시나가 그들의 딸이라는 제안은 잘못된 것입니다. Owain의 사생아인 Dafydd는 Henry VII에 의해 기사 작위를 받았으며, 그녀는 그를 Sussex에 있는 Midhurst의 John de Bohun의 딸이자 상속인인 Mary와 결혼시켰습니다.

1436년 글로스터의 영향으로 튜더의 아이들은 여왕에게서 빼앗겼고 그녀는 건강이 좋지 않아 버몬지 수도원에 갇혔거나 자발적으로 은퇴했을 것입니다. 그녀는 1437년 1월 3일 그곳에서 사망했고 그녀의 보호 없이 Owain은 즉시 그의 의붓아들에 의해 소환된 자신을 발견했습니다. 헨리 6세, "그 여왕과 함께 살았던 한 명의 Owain Tudor가 그의 앞에 오기를 바랐고 원했습니다." Tudor는 당시 Warwickshire의 Daventry에 있었고 서면 안전 조치 없이 오기를 거부했습니다. 손이 닿을 수 있는 범위에 도달했지만 그는 웨스트민스터에서 성역을 취하는 것이 현명하다고 판단했습니다. 그곳에서 그는 웨스트민스터 게이트의 선술집에서 자신을 추방시켜 그를 덫에 걸리게 하려는 노력에도 불구하고 얼마 동안 머물렀다. 마침내 그는 의회 앞에 나서 자신의 대의를 변호했습니다. 오웨인은 모든 혐의에 대해 무죄를 선고받고 웨일즈로 돌아갈 수 있었지만 안전 행동을 위반하여 보몬트 경에 의해 다시 데려와 그의 옛 집인 월링포드 성에 있는 서퍽 백작에게 책임을 맡겼습니다. 나중에 그는 뉴게이트 교도소로 옮겨졌다. 그의 사제와 하인과 함께 Owain은 가까스로 탈출했지만 곧 다시 감금되었습니다. 1438년 7월까지 그는 윈저 성으로 옮겨졌지만 이듬해 풀려났습니다. 그는 얼마 지나지 않아 사면을 받았고, 그 당시 성인이 된 의붓아들에게 좋은 대우를 받았습니다.

왕은 Owain을 그의 집으로 데려갔고 그에게 연금을 허용했으며 그의 아들들에게 매우 친절했습니다. 그의 입장에서 Owain은 충실한 Lancastrian임을 증명했습니다. 그는 노스 웨일즈로 물러났고 노샘프턴 전투(1460년 7월 10일) 직전에 헨리는 그를 덴비 공원의 수호자로 임명했습니다. 그는 Mortimer's Cross 전투(1461년 2월)에서 포로가 되었고 젊은 Edward IV의 명령에 따라 Hereford의 장터에서 참수되었습니다. 그의 머리는 현대인이 미쳤다고 하는 한 여성이 머리를 빗고 세수를 하고 많은 촛불을 켜놓은 시장 십자가에 놓였습니다. 그의 시신은 헤리퍼드에 있는 그레이 프라이어 교회의 예배당에 묻혔다.

Sidney Lee의 '국민전기사전'(1899)을 크게 편집


내용물

역사가들은 13~14세기 웨일즈에서 가장 강력한 가문 중 하나인 Owen Tudor를 포함하여 Ednyfed Fychan의 후손을 고려합니다. 그의 많은 아들들의 후손들은 부유한 '장관급 귀족'을 형성하여 [2] 그위네드의 영주들에게 인도하는 하인으로 활동했으며, 단일 웨일스 공국을 건설하려는 시도에서 핵심적인 역할을 했습니다. 이 특권은 에드워드 1세가 웨일즈를 정복한 후에도 가족이 웨일스 내에서 잉글랜드 왕의 이름으로 계속해서 권력을 행사하는 동안 지속되었습니다. 그러나 가족의 웨일스 유산에 ​​대한 인식은 남아 있었고 그에 따른 충성심으로 인해 그들은 억압된 Glyndŵr Rising에 참여하게 되었습니다. [삼]

Tudor의 초기 생애에 대해 알려진 것이 거의 없고 대신 대부분이 신화화되었다는 사실은 Glyndŵr Rising에서 그의 가족의 역할에 기인합니다. 그는 에일하우스 주인의 사생아였고, ​​그의 아버지는 도주한 살인자였으며, 그는 Agincourt에서 싸웠고, 캐서린 여왕의 집이나 옷장을 지키는 사람이었고, 그는 헨리의 후예였다고 합니다. V, 그리고 캐서린과의 관계는 춤을 추다가 여왕의 무릎에 떨어지거나 수영을 하다가 여왕의 눈길을 끌면서 시작되었다고 합니다. 16세기 웨일스의 연대기 작가 Elis Gruffydd는 자신이 그녀의 하수구(식탁 위에 접시를 놓고 맛을 보는 사람[4])이자 하인이라고 언급했습니다. 그러나 Glyndŵr Rising 이후 여러 웨일스인들이 궁정에서 자리를 확보했고 1421년 5월에 'Owen Meredith'가 1415년부터 1421년까지 왕실의 청지기인 1st Baron Hungerford의 수행원에 합류했습니다. 1]

잉글랜드의 헨리 5세는 1422년 8월 31일 그의 아내 캐서린 여왕을 미망인으로 남겨두고 사망했습니다. [5] Dowager Queen은 처음에는 어린 아들 Henry VI와 함께 살았고 그의 통치 초기에 Wallingford Castle으로 이사했습니다. 1427년 캐서린은 2대 서머셋 공작 에드먼드 보퍼트(Edmund Beaufort)와 바람을 피웠다고 믿어집니다. 이 사건의 증거는 의심스럽지만 연락은 영국 여왕의 재혼을 규제하는 의회 법령을 촉발했습니다. 역사가 G.L. Harris는 그 사건으로 인해 Edmund Tudor가 탄생했을 가능성이 있다고 제안했습니다. Harriss는 다음과 같이 썼다. Tudor'는 실제로 양쪽의 Beauforts에서 생겨났습니다." [6] 법령에도 불구하고 캐서린은 알려지지 않은 나중 날짜에 오웬과 결혼한 것으로 인정됩니다. [1]

"Owyn tedder는 여왕 Kateryn과 결혼했으며 rychemond Jaspar의 Edmunde yerle과 Edward는 Margarete와 결혼했으며 Edmund는 Somersett의 John 공작에게 dawter & eyer였습니다."

15세기 런던 연대기(Chronicle of London)도 비슷한 내용으로 들립니다. ". Oweyn [Tudor] hadde는 이전에 Katerine 여왕과 결혼했으며 hadde iij 또는 iiijor 아이들은 여기에 있습니다." [8]

    (1430-1456년 11월 1일) 하트퍼드셔의 머치 해덤 궁전이나 베드퍼드셔의 해덤에서 태어났다. 에드먼드는 1452년에 1대 리치먼드 백작이 되었고 나중에 마가렛 보퍼트와 결혼했습니다. 1456년 그는 Pembroke Castle에서 부부의 아들이 태어나기 3개월 전 Carmarthen에서 전염병으로 사망했습니다. 그 아들 헨리는 훗날 잉글랜드의 왕이 되어 튜더 왕조를 세웠다. [9](1431~1495년 12월 26일)은 햇필드에서 태어났다. 그는 1452년에 1대 Pembroke 백작이 되었지만 1461년에 반역자로 낙인 찍혔습니다. 그러나 그는 1485년에 1대 베드포드 공작이 되었습니다. 그는 버킹엄 공작의 미망인이자 엘리자베스 우드빌의 누이인 캐서린 우드빌의 두 번째 남편이었습니다. , 에드워드 4세의 아내. 그들은 문제가 없었습니다. Jasper에게는 Ellen Tudor라는 사생 딸이 하나 있었습니다. 엘렌은 런던의 스키너(1485년 사망) 윌리엄 가디너와 결혼하여 다섯 자녀를 두었다. 앤. Ellen은 1493년 이전에 런던의 스키너인 William Sibson(또는 Sybson)과 결혼했습니다. 1501~1502년, 드레이퍼 런던의 피터 왓슨(Peter Watson)과 윌리엄 가디너(William Gardiner)의 아내 고 엘렌의 남편인 윌리엄 심슨(William Sybson)은 윌리엄 가디너의 아이들을 대신하여 챈서리(Chancery)에 있는 런던 시장, 장로, 보안관을 고소했다. 웨스트민스터 사원에 들어간 윌리엄의 아들 토마스 가디너의 지분을 되찾기 위해.
  • 에드워드 튜더. 이 아이의 생애에 대해서는 알려진 바가 거의 없습니다. 튜더의 역사가인 폴리도어 베르길(Polydore Vergil)은 이름을 밝히지 않은 이 아이가 "생 베네 수도회의 수도사가 되었고 오래지 않아 살았다"고 말했습니다. [10]William Camden은 이 아이를 에드워드 튜더(Edward Tudor)라고 불렀고 그가 Nicholas Litlington 대수도원장의 무덤 근처에 있는 Westminster Abbey의 St Blaise 예배당에 묻혔다고 지적했습니다. [11] 그럼에도 불구하고 그는 대부분의 출판된 출처에서 Owen Tudor라고 불리며 그 이유는 명확하지 않습니다. 그러나 현대 역사가 피어스는 이 시기에 웨스트민스터 사원에 에드워드나 오웬 튜더라는 승려가 없었다는 것을 보여주었습니다. Pearce가 제시한 대안적 이론은 Edward Tudor가 1471년경 사망한 Westminster Abbey의 알려진 승려인 Edward Bridgewater와 같은 사람이라는 것입니다. 이 이론은 근거가 없는 것처럼 보입니다.
  • 폴리도어 버질(Polydore Vergil)은 오웬과 캐서린 왕비에게도 수녀가 된 딸이 있었다고 말하지만, 이를 뒷받침하는 다른 출처는 없습니다.

Owen Tudor는 알려지지 않은 정부로부터 적어도 한 명의 사생아를 낳았습니다.

  • 데이비드 오웬 경은 1459년 펨브로크 성에서 태어났습니다. [12] 그는 나중에 윌트셔의 사우스윅 법원을 인수한 후 서섹스에서 카우드레이 부동산을 가져온 상속인과 결혼했습니다. 그는 Midhurst 근처 Easebourne의 수도원에 묻혔습니다.

캐서린 여왕이 사망한 후, 오웬 튜더는 미혼모 여왕의 재혼에 관한 법령의 보호를 받지 못하고 뉴게이트 교도소에 수감되었습니다. [13] 1438년에 그는 탈출했지만 나중에 탈환되어 윈저 성 순경의 보호를 받았다. [14] 1439년 잉글랜드의 헨리 6세는 그의 재산과 토지를 회복하는 일반 사면을 승인했다. [15] 또한, 헨리 6세는 그에게 연간 40파운드의 연금을 수여하고 법정에서의 지위를 제공하고 그를 덴비에 있는 킹스 파크의 수호자로 임명했습니다. 1442년 헨리 6세는 그의 두 이복형제인 에드먼드와 재스퍼를 법정에 초대했습니다. 1452년 11월, 오웬의 아들 에드먼드와 재스퍼는 왕의 ​​이복형제라는 인정과 함께 리치먼드와 펨브로크 백작이 되었습니다. [16] 1459년 튜더의 연금은 연간 100파운드로 인상되었습니다. [17] Owen과 Jasper는 요크주의자인 Kidwelly의 John Dwnn의 하인을 체포하라는 명령을 받았고, 그해 말 튜더는 다른 요크주의자인 John, Lord Clinton의 몰수된 재산에 대한 지분을 획득했습니다. 1460년 2월 5일 튜더와 재스퍼는 요크 공작의 덴비 영주의 종신직을 수여받았는데, 이는 그들이 나중에 영주를 차지하기 위한 서곡이었습니다. [1]

Owen Tudor는 랭커스터 가문과 요크 가문 사이의 장미 전쟁(1455-1487)의 초기 희생자였습니다. 그는 1461년 1월 웨일즈에서 아들 재스퍼의 군대에 합류했는데, 모티머 십자가 전투에서 요크의 에드워드에게 패한 군대였습니다. 2월 2일 튜더는 헤리퍼드에서 붙잡혀 참수되었다. 그의 머리는 그곳의 시장 십자가에 놓였고, "한 광기의 여인이 히스의 얼굴에 피를 흘리게 하고"[18] 100개의 양초를 그 주위에 설치했습니다. 그러나 Tudor는 처형되기보다는 투옥될 것으로 예상했습니다. [19] 사형이 집행되기 몇 분 전에 그는 자신이 죽을 것이라는 사실을 깨닫고 "Kuene Katheryns lappe에 의지할 수 있는 주식에 의지해야 한다"고 투덜거렸다. [20] 그의 시신은 헤리퍼드의 그레이프라이어스 교회 북쪽에 있는 예배당에 묻혔다. 그는 사생아인 다윗이 수도사가 해산되기 전에 무덤을 사들일 때까지 기념비가 없었습니다. [1]

Owen은 다음과 같은 혈통을 통해 Deheubarth 왕국의 통치자인 Rhys ap Gruffydd(1132–1197)의 후손이었습니다.

Rhys에게는 Gwynedd 왕국의 Seneschal인 Ednyfed Fychan(d. 1246)과 결혼한 Rhys의 딸 Gwenllian ferch(딸)가 있었습니다.

Ednyfed Fychan과 Gwenllian ferch Rhys는 Tref-gastell의 영주인 Goronwy ab Ednyfed(d. 1268)의 부모였습니다. Goronwy는 Gwent의 Meurig의 딸인 Morfydd ferch Meurig와 결혼했습니다. Meurig는 Rhydd의 손자이자 Morgannwg의 마지막 왕(1081-1091 재위)인 Iestyn ap Gwrgant의 증손자인 Ithel의 아들이었습니다.

Goronwy와 Morfydd는 Penmynydd의 영주인 Tudur Hen(d. 1311)의 부모였습니다. Tudur Hen은 Englefield의 영주인 Ithel Fychan ap Ithel Gan의 딸인 Angharad ferch Ithel Fychan과 결혼했습니다. 그들은 Penmynydd의 영주인 Goronwy ap Tudur Hen(d. 1331)의 부모였습니다.

고론위 압 튜두르 Hendwr의 남작인 Madog ap Dafydd의 딸인 Gwerfyl ferch Madog와 결혼했습니다. 그들은 Tudur ap Goronwy라고도 알려진 Tudur ap Goronwy의 부모였습니다. 투두르 피찬 ("Tudur Little") 그의 할아버지인 Tudur Hen("Tudur Old"), Lord of Penmynydd(d. 1367)와 구별하기 위해.

투두르 피찬 웨일즈의 고대 왕실 출신인 Is Coeod의 Margaret ferch Thomas와 결혼했습니다. Margaret과 그녀의 자매인 Ellen과 Eleanor는 Llywelyn Great의 딸인 Angharad ferch Llywelyn의 후손이었습니다.

Tudur와 Margaret은 마레두드 압 투두르 (1406년 사망). Maredudd는 Anglesey의 영주인 Dafydd Fychan과 그의 아내 Nest ferch Ieuan의 딸인 Margaret ferch Dafydd와 결혼했습니다.

Maredudd ap Tudur와 Margaret ferch Dafydd는 Owen Tudor의 부모였습니다.

오웬이 태어날 때부터 온순한 사람이라는 데는 의심의 여지가 없습니다. 캐서린 여왕은 아들의 섭정이 서머셋 공작 에드먼드 보퍼트와 결혼하는 것을 허락하지 않자 법정을 나서면서 "나는 매우 천박하지만 온순하게 태어난 남자와 결혼하여 내 주 섭정이 반대하지 않을 것입니다."라고 말했습니다. [ 인용 필요 ] Somerset에 대한 반대는 그가 Gaunt의 John이 낳은 합법적인 Beaufort 가계를 통해 Henry V의 두 번째 사촌이라는 것이었습니다.


오웬 튜더 - 역사

네이선 아민

웨일즈와 영국의 역사는 낭만적인 인물, 용감하고 용감한 전사로 가득 차 있으며 타고난 기사도와 도덕 감각을 타고난 이들의 이름이 역사의 연대기에 남을 수 있습니다. 그러한 캐릭터의 화신은 의심할 여지 없이 모든 후대의 왕들이 복제하려고 애쓰게 될 신화적인 왕자인 아서 왕입니다. Arthur와 그의 기사도 기사에 대한 많은 이야기에서 영감을 받은 수많은 중세 남성은 기사도 성사에 따라 삶을 완성하려는 시도에서 그러한 인물을 채택하기 위해 똑같이 노력했습니다. Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur는 그러한 14세기 사람 중 한 명으로, 위트, 낭만주의, 무술 재능뿐만 아니라 기사도 기사로 간주되는 데 필요한 고귀한 배경을 가지고 있었습니다.

무법자의 아들

Owain ap Maredudd는 1400년경에 태어났으며, 같은 해 그의 아버지 Maredudd의 사촌 Owain Glyndwr이 영국 통치에 반대하는 반란을 일으켰습니다. 오웨인이 6살이 되었을 때 반란과 웨일스 독립의 꿈은 거의 무산되었고 그의 아버지는 사망했습니다. Maredudd는 남자를 죽인 후 실제로 Snowdonia의 산으로 도망쳤고 실제로 아들을 데리고 갔다는 이야기가 계속되고 있습니다. 반면에 다른 계정에서는 본능에 의해 가족의 재산과 명성이 돌이킬 수 없는 손상을 입었지만 궁극적으로는 파멸을 당한 후 가족을 부양하기 위해 런던으로 탈출했다고 말합니다. Glyndwr과의 동맹. Maredudd의 형인 Rhys와 Gwilym은 Glyndwr의 반란에 중요한 역할을 했습니다. Glyndwr의 반란은 헨리 4세 왕이 그들의 고향인 Anglesey에 도착했을 때 기습으로 시작되었습니다. 전투력과 권위. 헨리 4세의 위풍당당한 군대는 계속해서 튜더의 게릴라 캠페인에 의해 공격을 받았고 안전한 행진을 위해 굴욕적인 후퇴를 강요받았을 때 허둥지둥했다. 이 만남에 분노한 헨리 4세는 포고령을 발표하여 무기를 포기한 모든 반란군을 사면하려고 노력했으며 특히 Owain Glyndwr, Rhys ap Tudur 및 Gwilym ap Tudur의 세 사람이 사면에서 제외되었다는 경고를 했습니다. 그런 다음 형들은 1401년 4월 1일 콘위(Conwy)에서 왕의 가장 중요한 요새 중 하나를 함락함으로써 더 많은 돈을 벌었습니다.

Maredudd는 이제 반란의 결과로 불법화되었지만, 이전 왕 아래에서 그는 뛰어난 지방 관리였으며, 영국 왕이든 웨일스 왕이든 통치 군주에게 가족 봉사의 오랜 전통을 이어갔습니다. 그는 라그로 1387년부터 1395년까지 Malltraeth의, 인근 Newborough의 burgess, 그리고 마지막으로 1388년과 1391년 사이에 Anglesey 섬 자체의 escheator로서. 그러나 이러한 칭호와 땅은 반란 이후 그리고 첫 번째 Maredudd와 그의 형제 Gwilym이 죽은 후에 몰수되었습니다. 그리고 튜더 가문의 리스(Rhys)는 웨일스의 귀족으로서 사실상 몰락했다. 이용 가능한 제한된 정보 중에서 Maredudd는 봉기의 한가운데인 1405년에 Bangor의 주교의 후견인으로 고용된 것으로 보이지만 1407년까지 그가 사망한 것으로 의심됩니다. 다시 이것을 둘러싼 상황은 절망적으로 거의 존재하지 않지만 그는이 날짜 이후에 다시 언급되지 않습니다. Maredudd는 반란이 일어나기 직전에 결혼할 수 있었고 당시 존경받는 관리로서 Anglesey 영주의 딸인 Margaret ferch Dafydd와 결혼했습니다. 1400년, 그들을 둘러싼 세계가 무너지고 위험과 불확실성이 만연해 있던 바로 그 때, 이 결합을 통해 그들의 아들이 태어났습니다. 아이를 키울 수 있는 이상적인 환경은 아니었지만 그들은 계속해서 아이를 Owain ap Maredudd라고 명명했습니다. 그는 곧 독립 전쟁의 결과로 10년 안에 무너진 Penmynydd Tudur의 지배적인 왕조의 유일한 남성계 생존자가 될 남자였습니다. .

Owain의 초기 생애를 둘러싼 정확한 상황에 대한 정보가 부족하지만 분명한 것은 그가 7세 때 헨리 4세의 영국 궁정에서 왕의 청지기의 한 페이지가 되었다는 것입니다. 이것은 그의 아버지, 삼촌, 사촌들이 웨일스 독립 전쟁에서 헨리 4세에 대항하여 싸웠기 때문에 이상하게 보일지 모르지만 사실은 재산을 벌기 위해 야심찬 사람이 있어야 하는 법정에서 그리고 상환할 수 없는 튜두르 가문과 함께 했다는 사실이 남아 있습니다. 파멸적인 파멸로 가는 길, 런던은 Owain이 현실적으로 진출할 수 있는 유일한 장소였습니다. 이 비참한 시기에 모든 웨일스인과 마찬가지로 오웨인도 쓴 왕 헨리 4세가 부과한 엄격하고 가혹하고 억압적인 법 아래 웨일즈에서 미래에 직면했을 것입니다. 지역 주민들 사이에서 인정을 받고 올바른 지도와 후원자 덕분에 최소한 합리적인 삶을 살 수 있는 기회가 있었습니다. 오웨인이 10대였을 때 그는 유능한 청소년으로 왕의 군대의 일부로 받아들여졌을 것이며 적어도 1415년의 악명 높은 아쟁쿠르 전투에서 또는 그 주변에서 행동을 보았을 가능성이 있습니다. 이때 왕은 헨리였습니다. V와 용감하고 전사 같은 통치자는 그의 군대를 프랑스 군대에 대한 불멸의 승리로 이끄는 데 개인적으로 참여했습니다. Owain이 전투에서 어떤 역할을 했는지, 실제로 그곳에 있었는지 여부에 관계없이 그는 "Squire"의 위치로 진급한 직후에 14세 또는 15세 정도의 소년으로 기본적으로 견습 기사였습니다.

스콰이어에게는 할당된 특정 기사를 위해 수행해야 하는 많은 역할이 있었습니다. 서번트와 유사하지만 기사 자신이 되기 위한 전반적인 목표에 부합하는 역할이 더 많았습니다. 전형적인 역할은 기사의 방패 소지자, 기사의 갑옷과 말을 돌보는 것, 모든 전투 또는 오목한 곳에서 기사를 동반하는 것입니다. 기사에게는 그러한 스콰이어가 많이 있을 것이고, 그들 모두는 신화적이고 장식된 기사가 되기 위해 더빙을 달성하기 위해 똑같이 후원자에게 깊은 인상을 주려고 할 것입니다. 이 시기에 그의 생애에 대해서는 알려진 바가 거의 없지만, 그는 1421년 5월경 전쟁에서 왕의 청지기로서 핵심적인 역할을 했던 영국의 귀족이자 남작인 Walter Hungerford 경을 섬기기 위해 다시 프랑스에 있었던 것으로 보입니다. 프랑스인과. 이 기간 동안 그의 이름은 Owen Meredith로 주어졌으며 약 21세의 나이에 이 기간은 전쟁에 대한 그의 첫 진지한 소개였습니다. 정확한 연대를 확인하기는 어렵지만, 그가 최근에 사망한 헨리 5세 왕의 생존한 아내인 새로 홀아비를 얻은 Valois의 Katherine 여왕을 섬기게 된 것도 이 흥미진진하지만 위험한 시기였습니다. 이 직위는 아마도 Owain의 배경을 가진 사람이 도달하기를 희망할 수 있는 가장 높은 직위는 그가 1415년 7월부터 1421년 7월까지 King's Household의 청지기였던 1st Baron Hungerford에게 봉사했기 때문에 들어갈 수 있었던 것 같습니다. 그의 역할은 다음과 같습니다. 그녀가 Windsor Castle에 살았을 때 Queen's Wardrobe의 Keeper로서 그 역할은 본질적으로 그가 Queen의 양복점, 옷장 및 그녀의 옷장과 관련된 모든 것을 통제한다는 것을 의미했습니다. 드레스의 모든 재고를 처리하고 진행 중인 모든 의복이 반환될 때 만족스럽게 설명되었는지 확인하는 것도 그의 소관이었습니다. 그의 존재는 또한 보석 도둑이 낙담하는 것을 보장할 것입니다. 이는 여왕의 옷장의 호화로운 특성을 고려할 때 흔히 발생하는 일입니다.

남편이 여왕에게

There exists no evidence to support how exactly Owain ap Maredudd and Katherine of Valois met, although as a member of her household it is a possibility they would have had some interaction in his role as Keeper of her Wardrobe. Many apocryphal accounts exist to suggest the various ways they met and fell in love although these are generally discredited by serious historians as mere fancy of a more romantic later period. One such account states that Owain was river bathing in the summer sun and Katherine, upon seeing the handsome and tall Owain in the bare flesh, swapped clothes with her maid to introduce herself without betraying her high station. Owain apparently came on too strong after becoming besotted with her and accidently cut the cheek of the ‘maid’ thus ending the lust-driven moment. The next morning when waiting on the Queen as per usual, Owain became aware of the cut on Katherine’s cheek and at once realised with whom he had been with the previous day. The couple reconciled and thus began their loving and loyal relationship. A second story persists which claims that the lowly commoner Owain was intoxicated at Windsor Castle during a typical medieval ball and feeling unsteady on his feet whilst dancing, he tripped and fell into the lap of the seated Queen Katherine. Whichever way Owain first met his future Wife, in the words of 15 th Century poet Robin Ddu of Anglesey he “clapped his ardent humble affection on the daughter of the King of the land of wine” and they both fell deeply in love. Robin Ddu originated from the heartland of the Tudor family on the island of Anglesey and as an acquaintance of Owen Tudor it is very possible that he would have retrieved his information directly from the source, or at least have been privy to the information of those close to the couple.

Writing during their grandson’s reign and thus taken with a degree of cynicism surrounding the intention and plausibility of the words, the Italian historian Polydore Vergil wrote: “this woman after the death of her husband…being but young in years and therefore of less discretion to judge what was decent for her estate, married one Owen Tyder, a gentleman of Wales, adorned with wonderful gifts of body and minde, who derived his pedigree from Cadwalleder, the last King of the Britons”. Again due to the clandestine nature of their relationship, as it needed to be as a consequence of the parliamentarian restrictions on Katherine, the date of their actual marriage is unclear but is generally accepted to have been around 1429-1430. Living away from court may have certainly aided in keeping their relationship secret along with some loyal staff whom had pledged their devotion to the couple above that of the strict law of the land. Although such a secretive existence under the threat of constant exposure must have stressed the young and daring couple, their surreptitious marriage prospered without interference. The marriage itself was kept secret due to necessity, after all not only had the Queen broken the act by proceeding without the King’s consent but she had certainly married beneath her privileged and royal station. In 1430 their son Edmund was born at the couple’s Hertfordshire manor Much Hadham House and was followed by Jasper a year later at the Hatfield home of the Bishop of Ely. The following years also brought a third son called Owen and latterly the couple’s first daughter of whom unfortunately there is little known.

Although it seems incredible these days that a full term pregnancy could be comfortably hidden, it must be stressed that in such a period these country retreats operated completely independent of the main Court and were run by servants dependable to those at the top of the local hierarchy. Furthermore the baggy loose-fitting nature of 15 th century clothing would have helped conceal such a prominent physical feature such as pregnancy and was regularly utilised in cases where a female had conceived a bastard child. Secrets may not necessarily have been kept in a devious and underhanded manner, but being so far removed from those in power certainly helped prolong the status quo. It must be noted however that although the general public could be relatively sheltered from the matter it is likely that at least some of the main councillors knew of Katherine’s condition and her morganatic marriage. She was particularly noticeable in her absenteeism from the coronation of her son Henry VI as King of her native France at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris in December 1431, unlikely to have been an event that she would have willingly neglected to attend and more probably an event from which she was excluded from as punishment for her indiscretion. Particularly of significance around this period was Owain’s granting of “the rights of Englishmen”, a constitutional status conferred upon him that helped free him from the harsh penal restrictions placed upon all Welshmen in the post-Conquest period. Indeed it was still illegal for a Welshman to own a property in England or to marry an Englishwoman.

Although this denizenship was certainly more than the majority of his fellow Welshmen received apart from high ranking subjects whom had proved their worth to the crown during active military service against the French, he was still not granted the full rights. Owen was still barred from becoming a burgess as well as finding himself categorically restricted from holding a crown office in any city, borough or market town in the land. Although he was given permission to acquire land, bear arms, inter-marry with an Englishwoman and run a marital household the fact he still had some restrictions held over him may point to a level of suspicion directed towards him from the authorities. The Welsh, and therefore Owen, were clearly not people to be trusted. It was also possibly around this time that Owain ap Maredudd became Owen Tudor or at least began to be unofficially referred to as this. Undoubtedly his Welsh patronymic style would have caused issues in England for accountants and administrators unused to such a naming system and due to this confusion he had previously been referred to in various ways as Owen ap Meredith, Owen Meredith, Owen ap Tudur and so on. Whether it was through his own choice or through a misattribution by a muddled scribe his name was anglicised to Owen Tudor. What is curious about this action is that it was Tudur that was taken as his surname as opposed to Maredudd, Tudur of course representing the name of his grandfather as opposed to his father. Whilst perhaps not something that particularly caused much of an issue at the time for either Owain or his associates, it did have a direct consequence only a few generations later when the family ascended to the throne of England as the House of Tudor. Children in schools up until the present day very easily could have been studying “The Meredith’s” in history classrooms across the World. It was this name that was subsequently passed onto his own children in the English tradition of surnames passing from the father.

Whilst Edmund and Jasper appear to have been initially brought up by their parents, it would appear that the third brother may have been raised by Monks as unlike his brothers he spend his live serving God at Westminster Abbey and has never been recorded as living with his elder siblings. It was this third son of the brood whom was shown favour by his nephew King Henry VII later in his life when, in one particular instance in 1498, he was gifted the reasonably high sum of £2 by his brother’s son from the Royal Privy purse, recorded for posterity as “Owen Tudder”. When the monk Owen passed away not too long after this favour was shown, donations were also paid to Westminster Abbey to pray for his soul as well as the bell tolling to signify the end of this devout uncle to the King. Whilst Owen the Monk may not have been as great a figure to the religious consciousness of Henry Tudor in the way the King’s treasured half-uncle Henry VI would prove to be, he was nonetheless treated with respect by his illustrious nephew in life and death.

It was whilst heavily pregnant with yet another child that Katherine began to feel ill and she subsequently entered Bermondsey Abbey just south of the Thames, where she gave birth to another daughter Margaret on 1 st January 1437. It is a possibility that Katherine was aware she was dying from a fatal disease hence why she felt the need to seek the sanctuary and help of the Abbey nuns in South East London. It may also be a likelihood that far from going willingly to the Benedictine Abbey, she was in fact banished to the Abbey after her marriage was finally uncovered by the King or the Regency Government. As there is a lack of documents from the period to study the circumstances of the marriage will always be shrouded in mystique and doubt, particularly on the issue of when the Council finally became aware of the marriage and whether or not she was in fact banished to the Abbey. Of course it is also plausible that the Council were in fact already aware of the marriage by this point and she merely retired to the Abbey to help ease her pain from the disease that was ravaging her body, possibly terminal cancer or a tumour. Katherine of Valois, mother, sister, wife and daughter of Kings, passed away a few days later on the 3 rd January 1437 and her new born child following not long after. Regardless of her status at time of death and the possibility that she had scandalised the crown by marrying a commoner, the indisputable fact remained that Katherine was King Henry VI’s natural mother and therefore she was granted the royal prerogative of the right of burial at Westminster Abbey. She was interred and laid to rest next to her first husband Henry V in the Chantry Chapel, a sacred corner of the historic Abbey which had attained an esteemed reputation as the resting place of England’s revered warrior King.

Whilst Katherine was alive, Owen was safe from the Regency Council and any enemies he may have accumulated but as soon as she passed he found himself vulnerable and utterly exposed. His status as a commoner without any considerable estates or financial worth also proved to be a major disadvantage to his cause, a minor irritant easily crushed by those of a greater status. Clearly aware of the fate that befell him should he answer an urgent summons to court to answer charges relating to breaching the act regarding his marriage without the necessary and legal kingly consent, the wily Owen disregarded the promise of safe conduct and the Welsh adventurer instead sought sanctuary with some Monks in Westminster. Perhaps determining that no good could come from a life spent hiding like his namesake cousin Owain Glyndwr and courageously facing his noble adversaries, Owen managed to acquit himself of all the trumped up charges he faced and was subsequently set free as according to the law. Perhaps eager to escape any lingering hostility and to possibly mend a broken heart Owen began to make his way back to his native Wales, however he was tracked on the way, arrested by his pursuers and found himself officially charged once more by a council eager to punish him for deeds they clearly considered punishable. All of his possessions were seized and he was imprisoned in the notoriously dreary and tough Newgate Prison in the City of London to await punishment.

Robin Ddu again took to his craft to publicly admonish those whom he felt had wrongfully punished his beloved Owen. He loudly exclaimed that this Tudor was “neither a thief nor a robber, he is the victim of unrighteous wrath. His only fault was to have won the affection of a princess of France”. After briefly escaping from custody along with his chaplain and servant at the beginning of 1438 the group were returned to prison in March to continue their sentence before being transported to Windsor Castle. He would remain there until he was bailed in July 1439 with a notice to appear before the king on November 11 th that year or at any time the King requested. On November 12 th he was unexpectedly pardoned of all charges which suggests he had appeared in front of the king as requested to do so and received his royally sanctioned acquittal. The initial offence was still not mentioned at this point so there still remains a degree of doubt over what exactly Owen Tudor was being punished for although it is reasonable to expect that it was to do with his secret marriage, such was the determination of the council to punish him. Owen Tudor walked free from prison without a wife to begin the second period of his life as a chivalric gentleman, dutiful father and loyal step-father to his King.

The King granted Owen by “especial favour” an annual pension from his own privy purse and was certainly treated favourably by the monarch. Any past bitterness at Owen’s relations with the King’s Mother were certainly forgotten by the kind and personable Sovereign and the Welshman lived on the periphery of court life within the King’s Household. Owen himself was present with many other knights for the witnessing of a charter which was signed in the favour of the prominent Duke of Gloucester in 1440 and was even granted some further land in Surrey two years later in 1442, demonstrating his new, secure position at the court of his stepson. He was also given four further substantial grants by his generous stepson in the form of separate £40 gifts, the first in October 1442 followed by those afforded to him in February 1444, July 1444 and finally September 1444. Additionally an “Owen ap Maredudd” appears to have been included in the court party that journeyed to France in 1444 to bring back the young Margaret of Anjou, the King’s new Queen and although there is no resolute evidence that this was the same man the rarity of such a name around the court makes it almost a certainty this dutiful Welshman was the King’s dear and diligent stepfather. Over the next decade and a half Owen seems to have faded into obscurity for his whereabouts have not been recorded and it is probably that he was away from court tending to his estates, possibly in his native Wales. What is clear is that he would have been heartbroken in 1456 when his eldest son Edmund died at Carmarthen shortly after a skirmish with Yorkist soldiers after which he had been imprisoned. His son was only 26 when he died although he did leave behind Owen’s first grandchild, the young Henry, Earl of Richmond.

Father of a Dynasty

Returning to notice at the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, Owen was present at a Lancastrian Council meeting in 1459 where he, along with his son Jasper, he stood at the King’s side and swore undying loyalty to his Sovereign Lord and stepson King Henry VI. Both were issued with new estates, Jasper with one of the Duke’s castles and Owen with various manor estates in the Home Counties. Owen himself had also been knighted and was at one point a Deputy Lord Lieutenant and Warden of the Forestries. He had also been granted a further annuity of the substantial figure of £100 from the Royal coffers as well for his service. A Welshman whom had a renowned charisma, he also had seemingly not lost his touch with the opposite sex for he also fathered an illegitimate son around this time whom was called David Owen, or possibly Dafydd ap Owen in the Welsh patronymic style. This half-uncle of King Henry VII was shown royal favour in 1485 and attained the rank of Knighthood primarily due to his kinship to the new king.

Although initially unnamed as being present at the various battles between Yorkist and Lancastrian troops during 1460 and 1461, Owen played an integral part in a battle that took place in the Welsh marches on February 2 nd , 1461. In fact, it was to prove his final stand. Both armies came face to face at a small hamlet called Mortimer’s Cross in Herefordshire, roughly six miles north-west of Leominster and deep in the traditional heartland of the Mortimer-York family that the Tudor’s were fighting. Aware that victory was out of grasp after the early exchanges, the Lancastrian army broke ranks and Owen Tudor was eventually captured south of the battlefield whilst looking for a route to escape. An elderly gentleman of around 60-years-old at his time of capture, age may have played a part in Owen Tudor’s failure to escape and amongst the men he was detained by included the Tudor’s longstanding foe Sir Roger Vaughan, kinsman of William Herbert. Despite the joyous occasion of another Yorkist victory, a bitter and still grieving Edward no doubt felt this was an ideal chance to exact a measure of revenge for the death of his own father and brother at a previous battle and promptly ordered that Owen be executed in the nearby township of Hereford. Owen for his part didn’t believe that the execution would be carried out due to his close familial relationship with the Lancastrian royal family and accordingly was relying on his worth as a captive to win him a late reprieve.It was only as he was placed on the execution spot in Hereford’s High Town and his doublet torn from his neck that Owen grasped the realisation that he was to die imminently.

Rather than wailing or begging for mercy like many whom found themselves reduced to trembling wrecks at the moment of their enforced death, Owen Tudor was praised for taking his sentence meekly, obediently and humbly whilst unquestionably considering himself as adhering to the chivalric code he had always strove to honour. Regrettably for the aged and gallant Owen, chivalry was rapidly becoming a remnant of a bygone era, particularly during the height of this bitter dynastic quarrel, and he himself had become the latest victim of a bloody dispute rife with treachery and bereavement. Owen was reputed to have referred to his long-dead wife just before the axe came crashing down upon his neck when he proclaimed “that head shall lie on the stock that was wont to lie on Queen Katherine’s lap”. After the execution was completed a local madwoman recovered the head and spent a lengthy amount of time calmly brushing his hair and washing the blood away from the crimson-covered face, whilst surrounded the entire time by flickering candles in an almost ritualistic scene. The great adventurer and the swashbuckler whom had invigorated and resurrected his ancient Welsh family was no more. It was a sad end to a life that he had certainly fulfilled to its potential, from his obscure beginnings as the fatherless progeny of a failed North Welsh dynasty to the husband of a Queen. Perhaps intentionally due to the final resting place of his son Edmund, Owen was also buried in a Greyfriars Franciscan Church just outside the border town where he was put to death. Depressingly nothing exists today of his final resting place, the monastery closed under the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1538 and falling into a steep decline shortly thereafter. Unlike his son Edmund, it seems the grave of this brave and courageous family patriarch was not considered worth saving by his prestigious descendent King Henry VIII and the remains are seemingly lost to us for posterity.

Owen Tudor lived his life as a soldier of fortune, a man born into a family which had lost everything and had no prospects. Through his own wit and character he had managed to claw himself up from this lowly beginning to become the husband of the Queen and reviver of his family’s destiny. Owen’s adventures from the hills of Snowdonia to the Royal Palaces of London are often remembered for initiating the start of the House of Tudor which would become a Royal House with the ascension of his grandson Henry Tudor to the throne of England in 1485. In under a century, this family had climbed from minor outlaws in the darkest parts of Wales to the throne of the Kingdom, an incredible and certainly unrivalled rise for which Owen Tudor was greatly responsible. As a Soldier he was tough, brave and believed in chivalrous behaviour. As a man he was handsome, romantic and courtly. Owen Tudor was a proud Welshman, descended from the most prestigious of his small nation’s great leaders, including Hywel Dda and Rhodri Mawr and epitomised the incredible rags to riches rise that has always made popular reading throughout the generations. Owen Tudor, son of Outlaws and Father of Kings, your name remains immortal.


6 thoughts on &ldquo David Owen – another Tudor &rdquo

David app Owen app meaning son of in the Welsh language was a traitor like all the traitors that left the field of Bosworth on 22 day of August 1485. Henry the bastard did not raise a finger in that one sided battle.Yes he forecast victory because his whore of a mother had married Lord Stanley whom had informed Richard that he would fight on the Kings side. Richard took one of Stanleys sons as hostage knowing the danger that was real. Stanley laughed and said kill him for I have another son. know that no one even today can place a sin against poor Richard who made many good changes in law in his short two years as King. If the nephews had to be silenced or return with armies to bring again Civil war into our midst did Richard do this? We have only a loose sheet of writing from the estranged Thomas Moore to place this doubt in our minds. Yet his nobles many of them bribed by promises of power left our true King to fight alone to the very death as the lion he was. Bastards all off them whos souls must be fed to the dogs of Hades as the traitors of my family. It took a Parr lady to settle the score in her own way as Henry the bastard thought he had ethnically cleansed all Nevil and Parr supporters of the House of York when his big fat son married one of the last real Parr ladies alive then. She made certain all Nevil and House of York families came back from France and Henry never caught on to her loyal work. One did and she escaped his clutches and converted Henry V111 into a loving husband by stealth and by whit. If Richard knew that both princes had been born out of wedlock as his brother King Edward had married in secret the Talbot girl long before he secretly married Woodvile. So why did he have to kill these boys? If he did then he thought deeply of danger. The boys with Richards son had played with their favourite uncle Richard at Middleham and at Sheriff Hutton many times before it all went wrong when Woodville murdered her husband and gave her family full power to run all Britain. Many ifs here but that is how I have come to see what really happened.

Kevin, I appreciate the lingering resentment at how Henry VII gained the throne, and the dynastic propaganda that ensued.

But this was a long time ago, and one might equally argue that William I had no right to be Duke of Normandy, let alone King of England. For that matter, his relatives on the Breton side had much stronger legitimate claims to the English crown, and to Normandy, than he had.

Indeed, the Plantagenet ancestors became Counts of Anjou only because, by their own admission, one of their forefathers had been exiled from Brittany for a grievous crime.

Gong back further, the Franks betrayed the Romans by invading Gaul, deposing Syagrius and then attacking Rome’s last loyal allies in the West, the Britons of Armorica. This is also what enabled the Saxons to get a firm footing in Britain.

The true kings and queens of England, if such there be, are the Breton sovereign house. Their status as the eldest legitimate ruling house in Europe is implicitly acknowledged by the English monarch, indeed most of the monarchs of Europe, wearing ermine in their coronation robes, and by the ermine band in the coronets of the aristocracy.

I for one have grave misgivings about every de facto English monarch from John onwards.

Some interesting ideas here – are you sure you don’t approve of novels? While the approved histories definitely wouldn’t accept this I have the feeling that with the right prose style you could give Philippa Gregory a run for her money. And I guess one of the reasons for that is because you’re committed to the Plantagenet cause.

Hmm. I have to say that Margaret Beaufort being a whore is a first. Everyone is entitled to their opinion of course, but I can’t say that I would deem to truly know anything about anyone, much less from 600 years ago, and if indeed I were to speculate, it would happen after reading historical accounts written by others, and we all know how that can go. However, it is nice to see such interest and strong feelings, regardless of what I happen to think.

Julia, have you written an article on Arthur Plantagenet, paternal half-brother of Elizabeth of York?

Not yet – my problem is that i’m not always logical in my approach. It depends what I’m teaching or reading at the time. I shall, however, add him to my list – I also want to look at Richard III’s illegitimate son.

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Owen Tudor, c.1400-1461

Owen Tudor (c.1400-1461) was a member of an ancient Welsh princely family, related to Owain Glyn Dwr. His secret marriage to Catherine of Valois, Henry V's widow, brought him to national prominence and he became the founder of the house of Tudor.

Owen's grandfather was Tudur ap Goronwy. He married Margaret, the daughter of Thomas ap Llywelyn ab Owain, the last male heir to the princes of Deheubarth. Margaret's sister was the mother of Owain Glyn Dwr, making him Owen Tudor's cousin. Owen's father Maredudd ap Tudur took part in Glyn Dwr's revolt, and it would appear that Owen got a position at the English court in the aftermath of that revolt. He changed his name to Owen Tudor, taking his grandfather's name as his family name, and in 1432 was granted the rights of an Englishman.

Owen is first mentioned in English service in 1421 when he joined the retinue of Sir Walter Hungerford, steward of the king's household. At this stage he appeared as Owen Meredith. His early role at court is unclear, as are the circumstances of his meeting with Catherine of Valois. A variety of traditions exist, including one that he attracted her attention while swimming and another that he fell into her lap while dancing.

Queen Catherine became a widow in 1422, and was soon rumoured to be involved with Edmund Beaufort, a nephew of Bishop Henry Beaufort. This may be the reason that a law was passed in 1427-8 that made it illegal for a dowager queen to marry without the permission of an adult king. At this stage Henry VI was only a child, and so no such consent was possible.

However Owen and the Queen met they were soon in a relationship, and at some point around 1430 they secretly married. The marriage became rather less secret when the queen fell pregnant, and she gave birth to at least four of Owen's children - Edmund, Jasper, Owen and a probable daughter. Even so the marriage remained relatively unknown until Catherine's death in January 1437.

After the Queen's death Owen was summoned to court by Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, to answer the charges that he entered into an illegal marriage. He was granted a safe conduct but chose to seek sanctuary at Westminster. He was released, but arrested while returning to Wales. Under the law of 1427-8 his goods were forfeited - at this stage Tudor was a relatively poor man, and his possessions were valued at £137 10s 4d. He escaped from Newgate early in 1438 but was recaptured and taken to Windsor Castle in July. A year later he was released, on a £2000 recognizance (essentially on bail), and on 12 November he was officially pardoned. Although Owen and Catherine's marriage had broken the law of 1427-8 it was recognised as a legitimate marriage, so their children were in turn legitimate.

After his release Owen became a member of Henry VI's household. His son Owen became a monk, while Edmund and Jasper were in the care of Katherine de la Pole, abbess of Barking and sister of the earl of Suffolk.

The Tudors were well treated by Henry VI, and became loyal Lancastrians. In November 1452 Edmund was made earl of Richmond and Jasper was made earl of Pembroke. They were recognised as half-brothers of the king.

The Tudor claim to the throne came through Edmund's marriage to Henry's cousin Margaret Beaufort. Their son Henry Tudor thus had a distant claim to the throne through his mother, who was descended from Edward III's son John of Gaunt, but it was only the slaughter of better qualified claimants during the Wars of the Roses that turned the obscure young Henry Tudor into the Lancastrian claimant.

Owen Tudor wasn't active in the political or military crisis of 1455. His son Edmund died in 1456, and his son Henry was born posthumously. This left Jasper Tudor as the active head of the house. He had been present with the Royal army at the first battle of St. Albans, and fought on the Lancastrian side during the struggles of 1459-61. Owen did receive some lands forfeited by Yorkists in 1459.

Owen Tudor chose the wrong moment to fight. Late in 1460 Richard of York attempted to claim the throne but was rebuffed. A compromise was agreed, the Act of Accord, in which Henry remained on the throne, but York was accepted as his heir. This meant that the young Prince Edward was disinherited, and that helped trigger pro-Lancastrian revolts around England and Wales. Jasper Tudor (with James Butler, earl of Wiltshire and Ormond) raised an army in Wales, and was joined by his father. Elsewhere the Lancastrians were victorious - York was killed at Wakefield in December 1460 and Warwick was defeated at the second battle of St. Albans (17 February 1461) - but their Welsh army ran into the best commander on the Yorkist side, York's son Edward, earl of March (soon to become Edward IV).

On 2 February 1461 Pembroke and Wiltshire attacked Edward at Mortimer's Cross, and suffered a defeat. Pembroke and Wiltshire escaped, as did many of their men, but Owen Tudor was not so lucky. He may have commanded the Lancastrian right, and was captured during the battle. A few days later he was beheaded at Hereford. He was said to have refused to have believed that he would be executed right up until the last moment, and his last words were 'that head shall lie on the stock that was wont to lie on Queen Catherine's lap'.

The eclipse of the house of Lancaster in 1461 meant that Owen's son and grandson would spent most of the next twenty years either fighting in Wales or in exile, but in 1485 Henry Tudor was mount a successful invasion, landing in Wales before defeating Richard III at Bosworth Field. Owen's grandson would thus become Henry VII, and found the Tudor dynasty.


Owen Tudor

Owen was an early settler of Windsor. He and his son Samuel began the settlement on the east side of the Connecticut River, at Windsor, about 1677. Owen Tudor sold property in Windsor to John Moses in 1649. A DIGEST OF THE EARLY CONNECTICUT PROBATE RECORDS. 1687 to 1695.

Marriage 1 Mary LOOMIS b: ABT 1620 in England

Married: 13 NOV 1651 in Windsor, Hartford Co., CT

Residence 1645 Windsor, Hartford, CT

Page 111 Name: Owen Tudor Location: Windsor Invt. ?294-07-00. Taken 3d March, 1690-1, by John Moore sen. and John Porter. Will Nuncupative. John Loomis, aged about 39 years, Testifieth & saith: I was watching with Owen Tudor sen. about 3 nights before he dyed, & I Judged him to be in his right mind, & He declared to me and others that the girls should have ?10 apiece, & Samuel & Owen should have the rest, only Samuel should have a double portion & further Sayeth not. Rosamond Elmer Testifyeth the same. Abraham Colt testifyeth the same. Court Record, Page 27--March, 1690-1: Will proven & ordered to be recorded. See W. R., also "Lands," Sec. State Office: Owen Tudor & Mary Skinner were married 13 November, 1651. Samuel Tudor, son of Owen Tudor, born 5 December, 1652. Sarah Tudor, daughter of Owen Tudor, born 5 December, 1652. Owen Tudor, son of Owen Tudor, born 2 March, 1654. Anne Tudor, daughter of Owen Tudor, born 16 October, 1657 Jane Tudor, daughter of Owen Tudor, born 16 October, 1657.

Abbrev: Winsor Ancient History Title: Henry Reed Stiles, <i>The History of Ancient Winsor</i> (Somersworth: New Hampsire Publishing Company, 1976) Page: Vo. II, p. 767 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Gen. Reg. of 1st Settlers of NE Title: Genealogical Register of the First Settlers of New England (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 292 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Gen of Ancient Winsor Title: Henry Reed Stiles, <i>Genealogies and Genealogical Notes of those Families which Settled Within the Limits of Ancient Winsor, Conn., prior to 1800</i> (New York: Charles B. Norton, 1859) Repository: Name: Google Books

Page: p. 816 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Historical Sketches of John Moses of Plymouth Title: Historical Sketches of John Moses of Plymouth (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 121 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: 4:340 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Winsor Ancient History Title: Henry Reed Stiles, <i>The History of Ancient Winsor</i> (Somersworth: New Hampsire Publishing Company, 1976) Page: Vol. I, p. 167 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Loomis, Desc. of Joseph Loomis in America Title: Loomis, Elias, Descendants of Joseph Loomis in America (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com published by Elias Loomis 1875, revised by Elisha S. Loomis 1908) Page: p. 127 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: IV:340 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Tyler, W.S. Autobiography Title: Tyler, William Seymour, Autobiography of W.S. Tyler, DD, LLD (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 281 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Porter Genealogy Volume I Title: Andrews, Henry Porter, Genealogy of the Descenants of Richard Porter, Volume I Family Tree Maker GenealogyLibrary.com (Saratoga Springs: G.W. Ball, Book and Job, 1893) Page: p. 8 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Loomis Descendants (Female Lines) Title: Elias Loomis, <i>The Descendants (by the Female Branches) of Joseph Loomis</i> (New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor, 1880) Page: p. 129 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Loomis, Desc. of Joseph Loomis in America Title: Loomis, Elias, Descendants of Joseph Loomis in America (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com published by Elias Loomis 1875, revised by Elisha S. Loomis 1908) Page: p. 127 Abbrev: Richardson & Ellsworth Title: Richardson, Ruth Ellsworth, Samuel Richardson and Josiah Ellsworth (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 501 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: p. 112 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: IV:340 Abbrev: Tyler, W.S. Autobiography Title: Tyler, William Seymour, Autobiography of W.S. Tyler, DD, LLD (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 281 Abbrev: NEHGR CD ROM Title: New England Historical and Genealogical Register (The New England Historic Genealogical Society & Broderbund Software, Inc.) Repository: Name: Kimberly L. Branagan's Library Baldwinsville, NY 13027 USA

Repository: Name: Kimberly L. Branagan's Library Baldwinsville, NY 13027 USA


10 Facts About The House of Tudor You Probably Didn’t Know

Now that we’ve brought you up to speed on the rich and storied history of the infamous House of Tudor, let’s see just how much about the 튜더 you really do or don’t know.

As is the case with many things in life nowadays, history has become somewhat clouded over the centuries, and there have been a number of myths and misconceptions surrounding the House of Tudor that simply are not true.

To help clear things up and help you learn more about 헨리 8세 and the rest of the Tudor House, here are 10 facts about the 튜더 you probably didn’t know.

England Thrived Financially During Tudor Reign

Many people like to paint the House of Tudor as tyrannical beasts who looked down their noses on the general public, ruled with an iron fist, and made every decision based solely on greed and self-fulfillment.

The simple fact of the matter, though, is that during the Tudor reign, England thrived financially and became wealthier and more successful than ever.

As a result of this, the country was able to invest in better housing for the populace, as well as education.

Thanks to the finances generated during Tudor times, many schools and colleges were constructed up and down the country, helping to educate the next generation.

‘Bloody Mary’ Was Not Necessarily An Accurate Representation Of Mary I

During her reign, Mary I would become known as ‘Bloody Mary’ as she had 277 people burnt at the stake as a result of their religious beliefs and behavior.

Historians, however, believe that her reputation was the result of Elizabethan propaganda.

Instead, the general belief is that the nickname should instead have been given to 헨리 8세.

동안 Henry VIII’s reign, according to English Chronicler 라파엘 홀린셰드, who passed away in 1580, during Henry’s 38-year reign, the number of people executed was believed to be around 72,000.

Back then, thousands of peasants were executed for crimes which, nowadays, would barely warrant a police caution.

The Tudors Were Unusually Tall

This next piece of info on the members of the House of Tudor might not necessarily be deemed important, but if nothing else, it will give you something to talk about the next time you’re at the pub or with your friends of the family.

헨리 7세 was 5ft 9 inches tall, yet his son, 헨리 8세 was 6ft 2 inches. Historians believe he inherited this genetic trait from his grandfather, 에드워드 4세 왕, who was a strapping 6ft 4 inches.

캐서린 파 was also a very tall lady for her time, standing at around 5ft 10 inches in height.

In fact, from the hundred of so skeletons of crewman discovered in the wreck of the 메리 로즈, the average height was 5ft 7 – 5ft 8 which was still taller than the average male during that time.

Tudors Used To Preserve Meat With Salt

Just as we do today, the 튜더 were big lovers of meat.

However, unlike us today, the 튜더 did not have fridges or freezers to store their meat. So how did they stop it going bad? They preserved it with salt.

Salt preservation is a technique still used to preserve meat to this very day, yet back in Tudor times, virtually everybody who could afford meat would do it.

Mary I, Henry VIII, And Edward VI Were Not Actually British Monarchs

Though commonly referred to as British monarchs, Henry VIII, Edward VI, 그리고 Mary I were never actually officially Britons until Elizabeth I’s reign.

Upon the recommendation of Dr John Dee, 엘리자베스 1세 recognised the 3 aforementioned monarchs as Britons to help establish an Empire overseas, upon the legends of British monarchs over foreign realms.

Before being referred to as, and recognised as Britons, the monarchs were in fact English.

Students In Schools Learnt From ‘Hornbooks’

Despite the country being financially stable and investing money in education in the form of schools and colleges, back in Tudor times, there were very few books available to students.

These were very unusual contraptions which basically consisted of pages that displayed religious text, along with the alphabet, which were attached to wooden boards.

The name ‘hornbook’ came about because they finished off by being covered with a transparent sheet of cow horn.

Children Needed To Behave In Tudor Times

Back in Tudor times, if you misbehaved in school, or around the home, you didn’t get detention or grounded, instead, you would get 50 strokes of the cane on various parts of your anatomy.

Wealthy parents of students would actually hire what was known as a ‘whipping boy’.

Bizarrely, if the rich child stepped out of line and was naughty, the whipping boy would receive the punishment on behalf of the wealthy child.

The idea behind this punishment for the whipping boy was that, as the wealthy child was normally a monarch, the status of his or her tutor was below them.

Instead, the tutor would punish the whipping boy, with the idea that seeing the whipping boy punished would motivate the wealthy child not to step out of line again.

Black Teeth Were Fashionable In Tudor Times

Now, black and rotten teeth are the exact opposite of fashionable, but in Tudor times, they were very much in fashion.

Back then, sugar was seen as a status symbol because it was expensive, and so only the rich could afford it.

The wealthy would consume so much sugar that it would rot their teeth and cause them to turn black. Remember, there weren’t any toothbrushes, toothpaste, regular trips to the dentists back then, so oral hygiene was virtually non-existent.

Because of the status symbol of sugar, however, having black teeth became fashionable because it showed others that you could afford an abundance of sugar, and signified your wealth.

Tudors Did Not Have A Long Life Expectancy

During the reign of the House of Tudor, as a result of a lack of medicine, healthcare, education, and knowledge, the average life expectancy of a person living in Tudor times was far shorter than people nowadays.

The average person living in Tudor times was lucky to make it to 40, as the average life expectancy was just 35 – 40 years of age.

Martin Jones

Royal Editor

With over 30 years in the field, Martin Jones is considered as one of the world's leading Royal Commentators. He and his team report on the latest news, announcements and events from various Royal Families all across the world.


비디오 보기: Майкл Оуэн о хет-трике Спартаку, игре за Ливерпуль, Манчестер Юнайтед и Реал. Okko Спорт (칠월 2022).


코멘트:

  1. Votaxe

    그것은 나에게 보인다, 당신은 옳지 않다

  2. Yozuru

    웅장한 아이디어와 시간 프레임

  3. Nikonris

    당신은 그 자리를 쳤다. 훌륭한 아이디어, 나는 당신과 동의합니다.

  4. Panya

    나에게 틀린 것 같습니다



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